PS01 Poster sessions of 30 and 31 May 2017

Date: 2017-05-30
Time from: 14:10:00
Time to: 15:30:00
Room: Zona de Exhibicion de Posters

Abstracts

Theme:
5. Water ecosystems and physical regimes
Abstract ID:
594
Submit by:
Antonio N. Gómez Arteaga
Author(s):
Antonio Nicolás Gómez Arteaga |  Edwin Fernando Zetina Robleda |  Victor Hugo Alcocer Yamanaka |  
Country:
MEXICO
Keyword(s):
Computational Fluid Dynamics, spillway, physical model
Files: 

Abstract

This paper presents the study of the hydraulic operation of the Netzahualcoyotl dam emergency spillway, in the state of Chiapas, Mexico, by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The numerical model solves the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations(RANS) in three-dimensional cartesian coordinates using the finite volume method on structured meshes. The free surface is determined by the VOF (Volume Of Fluid) method.
 
The reason to modify the executive project of the emergency spillway was to correct the hydraulic deficiency of the original geometry. The prototype discharge capacity was lower than the expected by design (Qdes = 10,650 m3/s). This analysis sought to ensure a capacity of 9,400 m3/s associated with a return period (Tr) of 10,000 years, at least.
 
The computational domain consisted in interconnected mesh blocks with cell sizes of four, two and one meter. Respectively results were validated with a physical model (scale 1:65) built at the Federal Electricity Commission Hydraulics Laboratory. Numerical tests matched remarkable well the flow velocities along the emergency spillway at the physical model. The correlation coefficients between the computed and measured velocities were 95.6% and 97.3% for the right and left channels, respectively.
 
The versatility of the numerical model allowed to consider scenarios and compare different design proposals. The flow discharge was uniformly distributed along the channel, avoiding the flow concentration over the left margin and reducing the effects of inadmissible scour at the riverbed. The similarity between the numerical and physical models, given by the correlation coefficients, confirm the reliability of using three-dimensional numerical models design, review and improve hydraulic structures, supported by the validation of data from a physical model.
 
Theme:
3. Water security in a changing world
Abstract ID:
592
Submit by:
HUMBERTO SILVA
Author(s):
Humberto Silva-Hidalgo | Guadalupe Estrada-Gutiérrez | Martha Lorena Calderón-Fernández | Fernando Rafael Astorga-Bustillos | María de Lourdes Villalba |  
Country:
MEXICO
Keyword(s):
climate change, water availability, natural flows
Files: 

Abstract

The observation of the physical environment for long periods can expose changes in hydrological systems behavior, to anticipate problems that manifest themselves with greater intensity in the future. The northern part of Mexico is characterized by been an arid or semi-arid region, hence water scarcity is its natural condition; however, these areas can be even deeply affected by changes in climate. In this region, specifically the Hydrologic Region “Closed Basins of the North”, in the State of Chihuahua, where the Carmen river basin is located. This land area of just over 4,500 km2, from inception to where the dam “Las Lajas” is located. From this dam an irrigation district is supplied, hence, analysis of the effects of climate change in the surface water availability could be very useful, to take preventive measures to help cope with adverse conditions opportunely.

This reservoir has hydrometric records available since 1968, so it was possible to determine the monthly natural flows until 2012, by mass conservation equation, as established in the Mexican Official Standard NOM-011-CNA-2015. The behavior of natural flows shows a rise in the first nine years of the time series, and then a period of stability until 2012.

Regarding the behavior of the annual precipitation in the basin, the records shows a tendency to increase from 1968 to 1991, then it exhibits a decrease in the time series from 1992 to year 2012. Using the natural flows time series as well as the annual precipitation ones, was possible to determine the evolution of the annual runoff coefficient for the entire period of study, showing a clear upward trend.

The runoff coefficient exhibits high dependence on physical factors such as precipitation, vegetation cover and land use, soil type and its characteristics and geomorphological parameters of the basin, including the slope of the basin and of the main channel, among others. Analysis of cartographic databases from the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics in Mexico, it was observed that the basin suffered modifications in its natural cover, some naturally originated probably due to changes in the regime of precipitation and temperature, and other anthropogenic such as clearing land to establish agricultural areas.

As results of the research, there were changes in the surface hydrologic system, both in the climate (precipitation regime) and in the physical conditions of the basin. However, natural flows have preserved relatively stable, probably because the decrease in annual rainfall was compensate by the increase in the values of the annual runoff coefficient (caused by the physical changes in the basin, or changes in the rainfall intensity).

All the knowledge regarding on how the hydrologic systems could been altered by changes in the climate, would be useful to diminish adverse effects to the socioeconomic activities. Finally, the alteration of the surface hydrologic system, surely have produced alterations in the groundwater system that is associated to the first. This issue was outside the scope of the work, but it represents an area of opportunity for future research.

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
588
Submit by:
Sofía E. Garrido
Author(s):
Garrido Hoyos Sofía Esperanza | García Mendoza Karina | Miranda Zamora Estefanía |  
Country:
MEXICO
Keyword(s):
Arsenic, sludge, conditioning, dewatering, disposal
Files: 

Abstract

ANALYSIS OF THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ARSENIC SLUDGE TO IMPROVE DEWATERING AND DISPOSAL

*Garrido Hoyos S.E.1, García Mendoza K.2 Miranda Zamora E.3

1Instituto Mexicano de Tecnología del Agua, Paseo Cuauhnáhuac, 8532, Col. Progreso. C.P. 62550,  Jiutepec, Morelos, México.

2Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Programa de Maestría y Doctorado en Ingeniería Ambiental, campus Morelos. Paseo Cuauhnáhuac, 8532, Col. Progreso. C.P. 62550,  Jiutepec, Morelos México.

3Universidad Politécnica de Morelos. Boulevard Cuauhnáhuac 566, Col. Lomas del Texcal, Jiutepec, Morelos. CP. 62550 México.

*Author’s e-mail: sgarrido@tlaloc.imta.mx

Keywords: Arsenic, sludge, conditioning, dewatering, disposal

The aim of this study was to optimize the thickening, conditioning, and dewatering of the sludge generated during the coagulation and flocculation carried out to remove arsenic (As) from water for human consumption. Arsenic is considered carcinogenic to humans when it is consumed lengthily as arsenical water. Therefore, nowadays there are a number of technologies that remove this metalloid from water for human consumption, which produce waste (such as sludge, water rejection, backwash water filters, and water regeneration exchangers) with high concentrations of arsenic. Water regeneration exchangers are discharges to bodies of water or drainage networks that change environmental conditions such as pH, redox potential, and mobilize arsenic into the water again. First, in order to achieve the removal of Arsenic (As) from water for human consumption and generate sludge through coagulation and flocculation processes, a central composite experimental design 2k was employed and the following optimal conditions were obtained: pH of  7.20; dosing of ferric chloride (FeCl3) of 34.4 mg/L, and polymer of 0.89 mg/L, with the following response variables: settleable solids (SETS) of 7.59 mg/L and a concentration of As(V) in the supernatant of 0.003 mg/L for a confidence interval of 95%. Secondly, the thickening was achieved through gravity (for 12 hours). Third, the chemical conditioning of the thickened sludge was conducted through five organic polymers, which after comparing them, the polymer P1 Bufloc 5240 anion was selected, since it performed better in physical properties: specific resistance filtration (SRF) of 6 10+19 cm/g, a filtration time (Ft) of 107 s, compressibility of 520 mmHg, density specific of 1.011 g /mL, and total solids of 6.03 g/L. As for the chemical properties of water, they were mainly found in the sludge conditioned as interstitial: 42% and 30% in surface water, according to the analysis of moisture distribution, which influenced sludge dewatering. Conditioning with polymer P1 significantly affected surface water fractions but it did not affect the water fraction that was chemically bounded. Nevertheless, the free water fraction could be reduced with higher doses of the polymer. Fourth, for the dewatering process, the total solids determined in the belt filter press from filter cake were 6.03 g/L and 22.48 g/L for centrifugation. Finally, the disposal of arsenic immobilized residues could go into landfill for specific toxic waste.

Theme:
1. Water, sanitation and health
Abstract ID:
576
Submit by:
María Cristina del Valle TORRES
Author(s):
Cristina Torres | Patricia Rojas | María Pérez | Gloria Jaime | Marcela Medina | Juana Albarracín | Cintia Mariana Romero | María Elina González | Gerardo René Argañaraz |  
Country:
ARGENTINA
Keyword(s):
Drinking water, Water management, University Volunteer
Files: 

Abstract

WATER MANAGEMENT IN A HIGH MOUNTAIN COMMUNITY

 

Patricia Rojas2, María Pérez1, Gloria Jaime2, Marcela Medina2, Cintia Romero2, Juana Albarracín1 y Cristina Torres2

1 Fundación FEDUCAVI, Mendoza 387, San Miguel de Tucumán, Tucumán, Argentina

2Facultad de Bioquímica, Química y Farmacia- Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Ayacucho 471 - San Miguel de Tucumán, Tucumán, Argentina

cristorresunt@yahoo.com.ar

 

ABSTRACT

Actions developed in the community of Las Carreras (Dept. Tafi del Valle, Tucuman, Argentina) located at 2400 m high and 13 km from Tafi del Valle are described.

It is a dispersed rural sector. The population, about 100 families, is very poor. Many of them belong to indigenous peoples. Villagers perform some crops, and work as temporary workers.

The area is located in School Nº 22, full-time. More than 150 students attend initial and primary level, some with disabilities.

The water consumed by the population comes from the river Los Alisos, through different forms of connection. It is distributed precariously without proper treatment or chlorination, which is highly contaminated. After rain, the water is muddy and parasites can drag and trash.

Villagers are forced to buy mineral water, earnestly by transport, which is very expensive. They need to have with potable water and a more appropriate distribution network.

In this area they have been developed from a science faculty University Volunteer projects through which the problem has been alleviated. He participated in these actions the FEDUCAVI Foundation.

It would still be necessary:

-Reformulate the current water network.

-Build an infrastructure to supply potable water to the population.

-Provide home water tanks.

-To train students of the school as disseminators of water issues.

- To train community leaders to strive for self-management of water-To promote healthy behaviors regarding water resources.

For this stage, FEDUCAVI has obtained a grant from the prestigious Probitas of Barcelona (Spain) Foundation. By the subsidy is expected to complete the planned actions.

 

Dimension of Science and Politics: Water, Sanitation and Health

 

Keywords: Drinking water, Water management, University Volunteer 

Theme:
A. Bridging science and policy
Abstract ID:
575
Submit by:
Elia M. Tapia Villaseñor
Author(s):
Elia M. Tapia Villaseñor | James Callegary | Ismael Minjarez | Placido dos Santos | Rogelio Monreal | Francisco Grijalva | Floyd Gray | Anne Huth | Christopher Scott | Sharon B. Megdal | Lucas Oroz | Miguel Rangel | James Leenhouts |  
Country:
UNITED STATES
Keyword(s):
aquifer, transboundary, binational, science, policy
Files: 

Abstract

Groundwater from aquifers is used for different purposes. An aquifer is a multidimensional space where social, economic, political, cultural and environmental needs interact together; and every action has a repercussion to the whole system. When assessing groundwater in a single country, the distribution of the resource is shared among the different users; while a transboundary aquifer deals with the same distribution across two different countries. The United States and Mexico share rivers, basins and aquifers, and a 3200 km long border with a 100 km by 100 km transect (north to south) represent the borderland of both countries.

Problems such as the increasing population, limited water availability, water quality deterioration, decreasing groundwater levels, lack of binational water management policies, drought conditions, and the effects of global climate change are negatively impacting the groundwater reservoirs in the arid and semi-arid regions that represent the US-Mexico borderlands. The situation points to the importance of developing binational studies to assess groundwater conditions so that informed groundwater management policies can be developed and implemented. 

The binational United States-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Program (TAAP) was officially launched on August 19, 2009. The Mexican and U.S. Principal Engineers of the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) signed the “Joint Report of the Principal Engineers Regarding the Joint Cooperative Process United States-Mexico for the Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Program". This IBWC “Joint Report” serves as the framework for U.S.-Mexico coordination and dialogue to implement transboundary aquifer studies.

The objective of this poster is to present the San Pedro River Aquifer Binational Report as a milestone output of the TAAP. In this report, the United States and Mexico seek to contribute with scientific knowledge and binational data on climate, geology, soils, land cover, land use, and hydrology for the San Pedro aquifer.  The report compiles and creates a database of scientific information from both countries, and identifies data gaps and information to be updated for subsequent phases.

The participant agencies include the United States and Mexican sections of the IBWC, the United States Geological Survey (USGS), University of Arizona Water Resources Research Center (WRRC), the National Water Commission (CONAGUA) and University of Sonora, Mexico.

The major findings of the project will be presented, in addition to the GIS efforts to generate a binational cartography for the study area, and recommendations from the binational working team to achieve a better understanding of the transboundary aquifer system. This study is an example of how successful international agreements can lead to the development of a binational scientific report where two nations worked together for common benefit. 

Theme:
1. Water, sanitation and health
Abstract ID:
573
Submit by:
George Campos
Author(s):
PATRICIA Figueiredo | GEORGE CAMPOS | MARCIA BOOR |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
hospital water; microbiological analysis; microbiological control.
Files: 

Abstract

MICROBIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY MONITORING THAT FUELS HOSPITALS SUPPLY FROM MARANHÃO STATE MUNICIPALITIES ALTERNATIVE OR NOT.

 

Kamilla Karen Silva Bezerra; George de Jesus Gomes Campos; Adriano Jardel da Cruz Ericeira; Luciene Silva Sousa ; José Ribamar de Castro Junior ; Emmeline de Sá Rocha; Margareth Santos Costa Penha; Patricia de Maria Silva Figueiredo.

It has as purpose in this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of water supplied to public hospitals in the state of the state of Maranhão and its capital, considering the serious problem related to lack of quality water for a significant part of state health facilities The Brazil coexists with developing countries diseases such as the outbreak of diarrhea, hepatitis and cholera, which are concentrated in the poorest regions of the country, north and northeast and in peripheral areas of the cities, where not enough treated water and consumed is stored and distributed in an improvised way, as a result, there is a lack of quality control of water that supplies some municipalities, leaving the population exposed to many diseases originating from the consumption of this water. During the third quarter of 2015 were analyzed water samples at hospitals in the whole and in the state capital, totaling 22 health units using the methodology suggested by the book "Standard Methods For Examination Of Water And Wastewater", recommended by OMS and parameters applied for microbiological control standard potability of ordinance Nº 2914 of 12 December 2011 for counting colony forming units and presence of total coliforms and Escherichia coli. Of the thirteen units in the capital it was observed over the analysis that there was a reduction from three to zero the amount of contaminas samples with E. coli and reduction in average from 150 to 30 in colony forming units (CFU) coming to the end of the experiment all health units within the microbiological potability standard. From 9 units located in the state only two were contaminated by coliform, one of E.coli, there was also a reduction in the number of colony forming units in the beginning were above 200 and finished with values below 100. However, in the second month there were no samples outside the potability standard while the third month a sample that had not positivado in previous months obtained positive for E. coli indicating a possible contamination by foreign agent and reinforcing the need for constant monitoring and periodic water quality. In the current climate of Brazil for by the government due importance to ensuring the water quality in hospitals under its responsibility. Furthermore it is important to point out that enforcement agencies have the precarious structures, so no oversight effectively in all these places. Thus, the article presents the society and the government the reality found in our state

Keywords: hospital water; microbiological analysis; microbiological control.

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
565
Submit by:
Judith Ramos-Hernandez
Author(s):
Victor Ortiz | Judith Ramos-Hernandez | Jesus Gracia | Edgar Mendoza |  
Country:
MEXICO
Keyword(s):
river contamination, sanitisation, remote sensing, hydraulic system, Atoyac River Basin
Files: 

Abstract

Despite efforts to recover quality in rivers and other water bodies, the situation today is that sanitation and wastewater management are issues do not addressed completely due to the lack of political prioritisation that can be translated into poor governance and inadequate O&M; to cultural barriers to accept changes for untreated wastewater disposal in the ecosystem, and to an appropriated knowledge of the real status at different scales. Under these ideas, this paper presents an option to mitigate pollution as result of untreated wastewater disposal into water bodies as rivers or streams associated to the localities where they come from. The study case considered four communities with more than 1000 but less than 10,000 inhabitants, within the Atoyac River Basin, one of the most polluted systems in Mexico due to several point and nonpoint contamination sources. In almost all of communities, the sewage network covered between 40 and 80% combining pluvial water and municipal wastewater. As result of the growing population, the space is compromised to build a treatment facility in some towns. Thus, the proposal considered firstly, the improvement or change of the sewage network system, and then to implement a hydraulic sanitisation system focused in the reuse of the treated wastewater. The system involves the collection, conveyance, treatment and final disposal generating a water quality according to the legislation for irrigation. This could favouring directly to downstream farmers and, indirectly, upstream inhabitants by reducing healthy problems and the problem of an appropriate wastewater disposal. Data used involves satellite imagery and restricted information such as national digital maps for topography, thematic aspects (vegetation, soils) and population and its growing rate.

The result was to install two sewerage river basin pipelines as function of the urbanisation density and space. One collecting 75% of sewage from San Bartolome Matlalohcan town transported to a wastewater treatment plan (WTP) and reused in the same town. Other at the bank of the Atenco River collecting sewage from San Bartolome Matlalohcan (25%), Cerrito de Guadalupe, San Luis Apizaquito and Colonia San Isidro. In the last could be installed a WTP to final disposal at San Miguel Contla for irrigation purposes. Even if the proposal is a good option for these towns to start the sanitisation of their ecosystems due to the limited information available, the sewerage pipe lines need to be implemented by authorities and according to their capability to supply a correct O&M. However, authorities need to pay attention to the inhabitant’s necessities in order to avoid conflicts and to prioritise further actions. Additionally, generate detailed information that allows to carry out a complete hydraulic and hydrological, social and economic analysis is urgent to guarantee the good performance of the actions to be implemented. 

Theme:
4. Water policy and governance
Abstract ID:
559
Submit by:
Juliana Santos Vianna
Author(s):
Juliana Santos Vianna | Hudson Rocha de Oliveira | José Bento da Rocha  |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
Sharing, water resources, allocation
Files: 

Abstract

This paper aims to present the shared use of water resources through the negotiated allocation of water with the river basin and the establishment of local councils of water resource management as references. The allocation of available water resources in a basin can be done through optimized sharing in which the objectives of all users are taken into account. The main objective is to promote the multiple usage of water resources through a harmonious management that takes into account the individual and collective goals of all involved, generating benefits for the environment and the society.

The management of water resources of the basin is articulated in a negotiated fashion.  The governmental agencies responsible for the management of water resources and the users of the basin will be considered the legitim actors of this process and management will be performed based on the regulatory requirements established by regulators.

In short, decisions on shared use of water are taken at a meeting between users, regulators and government agencies with an interest in the basin. In order to properly conduct the negotiation, accurate information about supply and demand for water is mandatory.

In the Brazilian Federal District, the negotiated allocation of water takes place every year after the rainy season. It is done by means of seminars on the current situation, simulation of streamflow forecasting, assessment of demand flow setting to be released and formation of a committee of users, with official registration of agreed decisions.

The trading model used generated many gains in the participatory aspect. Note that the water allocation agreement was reached after much negotiation, and especially without violent conflict, as happened in past disputes relating to water use.

The decentralization of decision-making process - combined with the centralization of guidelines and democratization of the organizations of the system - indicates a milestone in the institutionalization of the role of society in the formulation, implementation and evaluation of public policies in Brazil. A system with this complexity and without a central directive could become innocuous, could lose their systemic character or would not produce results. Without decentralization, decisions and actions could get lost in administrative irrationality. Without democratization, the transference of governmental structures to a new shared public space with new meanings, the legitimacy of decisions could be lost in the absence of transparency.

The process of sharing water resources allows efficient coordination between public policy of command-and-control – as is the case of official concession to explore water resources – and economic instruments, such as taxation for their use.

The system proves to be efficient – especially in its strategy to converge into the same decision-making process various public agencies, users and civil society, often with conflicting interests –, so the interests of each sector and the related social costs are openly discussed and accommodated by all interested actors.

Theme:
3. Water security in a changing world
Abstract ID:
545
Submit by:
Carlos Salazar
Author(s):
Carlos Salazar | Michelle Hallack | Alvaro Lopez | Adrian Salcedo-Peredia |  
Country:
MEXICO
Keyword(s):
Flood, Regional Frequency Analysis, L-Moments, Design Storm
Files: 

Abstract

Located in the low desert of southern California and northwest Mexico, the Salton Sea basin is a transboundary region with highly variable climate that faces water availability and allocation problems. About 10 to 15 percent of the inflow in the basin originates in Mexico and travels through the urban New River; across the city of Mexicali. This has represented a problem to the city during raining periods. Urbanization usually increases the size and frequency of extreme events exposing cities to flood risks. The problems generated by urban areas have been prompted by the occurrence of heavy rainfall events that caused major damages to infrastructure and urban settlements, including human losses generating serious socioeconomic problems in the affected areas. When studying floods, a probabilistic approach is necessary, as such this paper provides a scientific methodology for the development of flood control planning for the region. In Mexico, having few weather stations and a small availability of records is a real constraint that imposes restrictions when selecting the most appropriate method. Thus a probabilistic approach could be a valuable option to estimate the occurrence of a meteorological storm. The main objective of this study is to estimate the design storm for the return periods of 10 and 50 years in the New River subcatchment under standard conditions. The analysis provides a framework for identifying flooded areas and possible weaknesses of the drainage infrastructure in the city of Mexicali. The methodology consists of performing a 24-hr Regional Frequency analysis using the L-moments approach in the New River Basin. The use of regional L-moments improved the reliability of precipitation magnitude-frequency estimates, particularly for the more frequent storms. The design storm magnitude and frequency were analyzed using four probabilistic distributions that best fit to the data: (1) Generalized Normal, (2) Generalized Extreme Value, (3) Pearson Type III, and (4) Kappa.  Time series of daily precipitation data were obtained from the United States California Climate Data Archive (CalClim), and registers from Mexico from the Rapid Extractor Climatological Information; provided by the Mexican Institute of Water Technology and the National Water Commission (CONAGUA). The outcome of the study suggested that the upper stream of the New River has weaknesses in its infrastructure, endangering the urban area of the city of Mexicali and the border with California. Also, the results provided information that can be used by the planning managers of the border region with particular attention to flood control planning.
 
Theme:
6. Water and sustainable growth
Abstract ID:
543
Submit by:
Jeffrey Cheng
Author(s):
Jeffrey Cheng
Country:
UNITED STATES
Keyword(s):
Low Impact Development, Imperviousness Rate, Watershed, Level Spreader, Sustainable development, Cascading Planes, Nonstructural Stormwater Management, Stormwater Quality.
Files: 

Abstract

Low impact development (LID) is an alternative comprehensive approach to urban stormwater management. It can be used to address a wide range of water quality issues, erosion control problems, and reduce capital cost of a storm drainage system. The LID cascading planes layout has been widely applied on new community developments, and the Level Spreaders are commonly used in combination with riparian buffers as a stormwater Best Management Practice (BMP) in many parts of the developments. These systems have not been extensively studied in urban environments to determine the impact on the flow path, nor do level spreaders have a complete detailed design guideline. This paper provides the Kinematics wave cascading model and runoff volume analysis numerical techniques to model a low impact development layout system for the purpose of comparison between effective imperviousness and traditional area weight method imperviousness. 

In stormwater management, watershed imperviousness is a primal parameter in urban hydrology to evaluate the storm runoff rate and volume. This study uses a cascading-plane model to represent the physical landscaping layout and use the runoff volume to evaluate the effective imperviousness. The cascading model for the level spreader provides a new methodology to analyze the basin imperviousness. Under the traditional area weight method concept, the impervious rate for the case study should remain constant at 50% since the impervious area is equal to pervious area.  With the cascading model however, the effective imperviousness can be represented from 14% to 81%, based on different rainfall depth and different soil infiltration rates. For a high frequency but low intensity rainfall event, the traditional area weight method over- estimates the storm runoff volume. The main reason that the traditional area weight method  overestimates storm runoff is that the method does not consider the basin’s flow path and ignores the additional soil infiltration volume when overflow passes over the pervious surface area.

This study introduces the effective imperviousness rate, and provides the cascading model was successful at representing the physical behaviors in terms of runoff and infiltration of the level spreader system.

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
541
Submit by:
Romina Battistella
Author(s):
Romina Battistella | Irene Ortega Paredes | Monica Morvillo |  
Country:
ARGENTINA
Keyword(s):
grounwater, multivariate analysis
Files: 

Abstract

This work aims chemical classification and characterization of groundwater basin Santa Rosa, province of Catamarca, Argentina. This has a political, economic and social interest because water resources on the área should be managed strategically for human consumption, livestock and irrigation.

 Groundwater sampling was carried out  in 2014, with private and municipal wells. The samples were collected  at 72 sites, to a máximum depht of about 250 m, distributed over the whole alluvial plain, that include the study área. The samples were analized for a total of 13 parameters: Potential Hydrogen , major , minor ions and trace non-metallic inorganic constituents (pH, Na +, Ca++, Mg ++,K +, HCO3-, Cl- , SO4 = ,SiO2, B, NO3-, F-, As).

Classification was obtained with application of statistical multivariate methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) that allow to identify and group the most significant system variables and Cluster  Analysis (CA) classified wells in two classes or distinct groups (G1 and G2) considering the variables more indicative according to those found in the PCA.

Groups representation of water wells on geographical coordinates or locations, indicated spatial autocorrelation relating the Group 1 (G1) to the northwest of the region, while group 2 (G2) lies directly to the center and southeast of the study area. The observation of the locations notice that G1 is more compact that scattered G2.

For hydrochemical characterization of each group applied Kurlov criterion, that considers the anions and cations exceeding 20% of milliequivalents per liter. The results of this analysis associated  G1 with sodium bicarbonate water type and  G2 with sulfated sodium bicarbonate water type.

Hydrochemistry classification of studied watershed improves knowledge of water quality and is useful for defining indexes that facilitate resource monitoring, providing society tools for future management and exploitation.

 

Theme:
4. Water policy and governance
Abstract ID:
540
Submit by:
sajjad ahmad
Author(s):
Haroon Stephen | Yoohwan Kim | Sajjad Ahmad |  
Country:
UNITED STATES
Keyword(s):
integrated management, sustainability, multi-agency coordination, climate change
Files: 

Abstract

Water resource management under short term system perturbations such as storms and longer-term systemic changes caused by climate change such as droughts is challenge when multiple agencies are involved. Many semi-arid regions in western USA are experiencing rapid urban population growth, resulting in increase in water demand. At the same time, climatic changes in the hydrological processes have resulted in decreased water supply. These reinforcing changes have resulted in rendering the conventional urban water management approach of use-and-release as ineffective and a paradigm shift towards water reuse, water conservation, and water sequestration at an urban scale. With the adoption of new strategies by the urban water management agencies, the process of decision making has become complex due to interdependence and competition.  In addition, the creation of specialized departments to monitor and manage different aspects of the water resource system led to the development of data management and computational systems within each agency focused on their own limited decision-making scope. However, the stakes for coordinated decisions are rising, especially in arid and semi-arid regions where the buffer between supply and demand is small.  Uncertainty brought by future climate change, increased pressure on a range of natural resources, and growing demand make efficient decisions critical.  At the same time, the potential for better integration across the water resource system has also increased, as more data are collected and computational power have advanced. This research focuses on improving the water management under changing climate conditions and population growth. This is achieved through understanding the agency water jurisdictions, management strategies, and modes of operation in Las Vegas Valley (LVV). The coupled behavior of supply water, stormwater, and wastewater in LVV is analyzed through a multi-agency point-of-view to identify ways to improve water efficiency and management efficacy. In this valley, Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) is tasked with supplying water to Clark County from Lake Mead and groundwater pumping.  Likewise, the job of Clark County Regional Flood Control District (CCRFCD) is to efficiently remove storm water from the urban area using a network of drains and detention basins. Similarly, Clark County Reclamation District (CCRD) treats the urban wastewater and releases into Las Vegas wash and thus, back into Lake Mead, the source of water supply for the LVV. Evidently, SNWA, CCRFCD, and CCRD have interrelations that could be used to improve an integrated water management of all types of water. For example, stormwater and treated wastewater can augment water supply. As a final product, a framework is presented that SNWA, CCRFCD, and CCRD can use to share data and models necessary for integrated water management. This framework, with appropriate modifications, can be used by other cities to improve coordination among different water management agencies resulting in better management of water resources. 

Theme:
4. Water policy and governance
Abstract ID:
536
Submit by:
Sebastian Riera
Author(s):
Guillermo Donoso | Eiman Karar |  
Country:
ARGENTINA
Keyword(s):
water governance, water security, SDG,
Files: 

Abstract

Considering good water governance as an end in itself rather than a mean to an end, the core of the seminar stressed on inclusiveness, functionality and profitability of water structures. Balanced growth and poverty reductions were elicit from three continuous measurement levels: conditions, progress and impact of public policies in bottom-up and multi-stakeholder water networks. Novel methodologies and frameworks were discussed, from power asymmetries measurement approaches to transparent practices and economic viable strategies on access, management and reuse of water.

Discussions on tools and methodologies reflected water governance as a myriad of rules, practices and processes than can effectively enhance inclusiveness in water policies. Concrete implementation of good practices like water stewardship and progressive tariff showed how collaborative action acknowledging cultural diversity, capacity gaps, and differential needs could enhance equitable growth and boost sustainable development on water management. Social network analysis, designed as a comprehensive assessment tool, identify political spaces for change and recognize power relationships of all stakeholders involved, so that water and sanitation development initiatives are fair and sustainable for all segments of society.

From theory to practice, good water governance need to show successful case studies of good water governance that overcome barriers on implementation. In this line, understanding the cultural norms and practices are key to overcome the institutionalized corruption for structural change in water governance. Other relevant input is the fruitful discussions on transboundary water management and performance measurement, through public-private partnerships and water infrastructure.

Following on the different levels of measurement, an important challenge to improve water governance is to overcome the difficulty to monitor/assess performance.  This requires an agreed set of specific indicators for good water governance that are not SDGs indicators.  Therefore, collecting the right type of data and the ability to channel such information to end users, relying on both government and non-government organizations, contributes to ensure the measurement of indicators of good water governance.

Good water governance requires the ability to mainstream integrity and transparency to respond to the need for structural change to reduce corruption. Policy reform to eradicate corruption requires careful consideration of the cultural setting and common practices of the society.  International donors and policy makers help strengthen ‘agents of change’ by working together with accountable agencies and institutions that act both as partner and third party observer, towards strengthening institutional accountability.

Theme:
4. Water policy and governance
Abstract ID:
534
Submit by:
Roberto Ponce
Author(s):
Leonardo Vargas | Felipe Vásquez-Lavín | Roberto Ponce |  
Country:
CHILE
Keyword(s):
economic value of water, water demand, industrial demand, implicit price of water, marginal productivity of water
Files: 

Abstract

Water is a key resource for many economic sectors, among of which the industrial is one of the most relevant considering the value added generated for the economy. In this paper we estimate the economic value of water for the Chilean Manufacturing Industry, using the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC). The economic value of water is estimated using the marginal productivity approach, based on a panel data coming from the National Industrial Survey for the period 1995 – 2006, accounting for more than nine thousand firms. We use a Tans-log specification for the production function, considering water, capital, labor, energy, and intermediate material as independent variables. According to the results, there is substitution among inputs, with the exception of energy-water and energy-intermediate materials composites, both of them complements among each other. Our estimations indicate that the implicit value of water is USD 4.47/m3 (average), ranging from USD 1.71 /m3 for textiles to 4.33 7m3 for common metals. Knowing the economic value of water, or its implicit price, could help policy makers to design water policies aimed to promote a more efficient use of its scarce resource.

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
530
Submit by:
Hugo Arangoitia Valladares
Author(s):
Hugo Arangoitia Valladares
Country:
PERU
Keyword(s):
Wastewater,Nutrient removal,Nitrogen,Phosphorus,Artifical Wetlands,Chrissopogon Zizaniodes.
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Abstract

The Organization of the United Nations (UN) goals set in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by their target 7c mentioned, Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation However it has not reached the target in terms of the service they saneamiento.entre Latin America has a 67% service coverage.

Peru made the sanitation programs to reach the proposed member organizations is UN, WHO coverage. Among some of its policies, the state entity National Superintendence of Sanitation Services (SUNASS) made a diagnosis of plants municipal water treatment plant (WWTP), mentioning that some wastewater treatment plant already exceeded the design stage, in others, there little or no operation and maintenance due to lack of budgets for maintenance of mechanical equipment, result to evacuate their effluents disrupt ecosystems of the receiving bodies (rivers, lakes and ponds) as in the case of eutrophication by excess nutrients.

The research raises a alternantiva treatment is the principle of biodegradation organic matter by microorganisms adhered to a substrate and adsorption medium nutrients macrophytes for this, two artificial wetlands in their surface flow constructed at pilot scale, one of them presented as gravel bed support 4inch as filter medium (substrate) that have been pre gravels selected (2-½ inch), the macrophyte is Chrissopogon Zizaniodes investigate this macrophyte has been investigated during the past decades research center considering a treatment option for municipal wastewater as mining tailings, development of roots, rhizomes and stolons can grow up to 3 meters, allowing greater adherence of minerals and nutrients compared to other macrophytes such as reeds and cattails . For the other artificial wetland has the same bed support and substrates but does not have any macrophyte (white), this will evaluate and compare the macrophyte influence on nutrient removal (nitrates, total phosphorus).

Our proposal is to aerater to HASS, these vents are naturally by vertical PVC pipes of ½ "inch. which are distributed equally spaced along each wetland, reaching bed support where they are distributed across the width of each wetland, income airflow allow oxygen transfer, resulting low concentrations of dissolved oxygen will have and come to terms anoxic, this will allow to accelerate the nitrification-denitrification processes, allowing greater nutrient uptake by macrophytes.

The research was developed in the research center treatment of wastewater and hazardous waste (CITRAR-UNI) of the National University of Engineering (Lima, Peru), where municipal wastewater from human settlements The Angel and the Miracle is captured.

Municipal wastewater go through a screening and primary treatment Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) after the pilot, research was conducted for 9 months (January-September, 2016) .The evaluated the pH, temperature, relative humidity, nitrates, total phosphorus, BOD5 and COD according to Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater(APHA). Coming to the conclusion that the process of nutrient removal by the macrophyte vetiver in ventilated artificial wetlands allows greater efficiency of 72.3% in nutrient removal for a retention time (TR) of 8 hours, and 81.4% for TR 12 hours, and is low cost technology, with low operation and maintenance.

The research was raised in the proposed greywater treatment by the Educational Institution IE Ramilo Priale Priale of San Juan de Lurigancho, Lima, Peru for Competition d Good Practice for Water Saving developed by SUNASS, allowing them to win the competition, which it will be replicated by the center of studies.

The research contributes to the project bank technology of artificial wetlands CITRAR-UNI, likewise, further work on this type of technology to be considered in the National Building Regulations of Peru.

 

Theme:
5. Water ecosystems and physical regimes
Abstract ID:
521
Submit by:
Arllon José dos Santos Dias
Author(s):
Arllon José dos Santos Dias | Josilene Chaves Almeida | Tainá Martins Carvalho | Carla Priscilla Távora Cabral | Luana Silva Bittencourt | Gabriel Araujo da Silva |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
Amazon River, total chlorides, pH
Files: 

Abstract

The coastal and estuarine area of the Amazon river has unique conditions, leading to a major ecological instability, which tends to generate social and economic problems. This study aimed to analyze the changes in the physico-chemical parameters in Franquinho River, to check for influence of the seawater on the river water quality, and the correlation with possible impacts on the lives of riverside communities. Analyzes were developed in the community Franquinho, on the shores of Franquinho River, located in Franco Island, Bailique Archipelago, estuarine region of the Amazon River, the Amazon rainforest, Brazil. The samples were collected in July and September 2016, the start of the dry season in the region. For survey data and the community relationship with the stream of the cycle and applicability of public policies aimed at the treatment of water, was made interviews and applied semi-structured questionnaires. We collected 24 samples of surface water from the mouth to near the source of the river, divided 12 samples in periods of low tide (PS) and 12 more in periods of high tide (PC). For pH analysis was used pHmeter and chlorides were determined by the Mohr method. The pH values were 6.33±0.41 (PS01°), 6.91±0.72 (PC01°), 7.50±0.06 (PS02°) and 7.40±0.12 (PC02°) and total chlorides were 120.59±45.32 (PS01°), 55.91±15.70 (PC01°), 268.17±61.95 (PS02°) and 126.80±50.79 (PC02°), values are expressed in mg/L. Through the questionnaires it was found that all respondents use from the natural course of water for domestic consumption and as a means of subsistence. The dry in the Amazon region is already present for years, and has worsened and resulting in problems in the community's way of life. Two months after the start of the dry season the PS02º and PC02° values were increased, with amounts above the standard set by Brazilian law showing thus that the stream is influenced by sea water. Assuming that the period of lower discharge of the Amazon River are described in the literature for November and December (peak of the dry season) have the chloride concentration gradient tends to increase directly influencing water quality, dynamic processes water in trophic level. Consequently, the established communities there, since high concentrations of chlorides, can restrict its use because of the given flavor and the laxative effect they may cause. It was possible to complete the stream suffers influence of the sea water and that public policies that access to good quality water for human consumption have not been found on the spot nor reported by residents. Thus, it is necessary future projects that incorporate technical and environmental care, also encompassing the management of desalination systems in estuarine communities, especially in the months of drought, so that this situation is ameliorated.

Theme:
5. Water ecosystems and physical regimes
Abstract ID:
519
Submit by:
José Angelim da Silva Neto
Author(s):
josé angelim da silva neto | Artur Paiva Coutinho | Rodrigo Lustosa Peronico | Severino Martins do Santos Neto | Ana Emilia Carvalho de Gusmão da Cunha Rabelo |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
conilon coffee, adaptative behavior, phenotypic analyses
Files: 

Abstract

Coffee cultivation emerges as a more viable and commercially sustainable planting alternative for areas degraded by sugar cane monoculture. Therefore, studies with coffee cultivars seek for plants that are more adapted to the environmental of Brazilian northeast. Thus, it is possible to obtain a better performance in the water consumption and maintenance of the high productivity levels in the field. Regarding this, studies of the morphological characteristics and mechanisms of physiological response of the plant, which control the loss of water by the leaves, are of extreme importance. So, they allow the adaptive evaluation of the variety to the region of Zona da Mata of Pernambuco, aiming an better adequate use of the species under study. Therefore, this work, which was carried out in the Department of Nuclear Energy of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE) and in the Instituto Agronômico de Pernambucano (IPA) Experimental Unit, consisted of the characterization and morpho-anatomical analysis of Coffea canephora L. (Early Vitória variety 2 INCAPER). Then were performed the following procedure: selection of clones in the experimental field, collection of botanical material, characterization of hydraulic properties, hydraulic functionality and analysis of experimental data. In general, it was concluded that the clone of the early Vitória variety 2 did not show large phenotypic variations. Indicating that these plants are exhibiting the same adaptive response in the Brazilian environment.

 

 

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
512
Submit by:
Josilene Chaves
Author(s):
Josilene Chaves de Almeida | Arllon José dos Santos Dias | Tainá Carvalho Martins | Carla Priscilla Távora Cabral | Luana Silva Bittencourt | Gabriel Araújo Silva |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
Amazon River, pH, total hardness
Files: 

Abstract

 

We examined the quality water of Franquinho River located in the Bailique Archipelago, mouth of the Amazon River. The Franquinho community has an economy based on plant and animal extraction. The fishing as one of the main means of subsistence. The region has a hot humid climate and two well-defined seasons, the summer or dry season (July to December) and the winter or rainy season (January to June). Through standardized questionnaires, residents reported that from November month the Franquinho River water are briny, for the reason that the seawater get into the riverbed. This characteristic influence in the community, one of the greatest difficulties access to drinking water, in addition, during this period the number and species of fish catch decreased dramatically. Faced with this problem, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of seawaters on the estuary of the Amazon River. We collected the water samples in July and September 2016 in 12 points along the Franquinho River, two collections per day, one in the high tide and another during the low tide. Parameters such as pH, alkalinity, total hardness and acidity guided this study, and were determined in accordance with current Brazilian legislation. The results of July to the pH showed 6.33 ± 0.41 and 6.91 ± 0.72, the alkalinity of 43.92 ± 2.40 and 44.18 ± 2.03, total hardness 48, 10 ± 9.44 and 46.50 ± 11.37 and zero acidity for the low and high tide periods respectively. In September there was a significant increase in these parameters, except for acidity remained zero, the pH ranged from 7.50 ± 0.06 and 7.40 ± 0.12, 63.30 ± 6.30 alkalinity and 69.10 ± 8.06 and total hardness 53.20 ± 9.07 and 50.30 ± 15.14 for low and high tide periods respectively. The data corroborates the citizens’ accounts, and so it is clear that the influence of seawaters are present from the September and that the decline of species and fish catches. The seawaters also caused the increased in alkalinity, as related to the arrangement. Thereof in the aquatic environment before the invasion of seawaters, migrate to warmer environments, usually in habitats along downstream rivers. More data will be collect to determine the maximum influence of seawaters in the lotic ecosystem Franquinho community in Archipelago Bailique, Amapá, Brazil.

Theme:
5. Water ecosystems and physical regimes
Abstract ID:
510
Submit by:
Roberto Ponce
Author(s):
Roberto Ponce | Francisco Fernandez | Alejandra Stehr | Felipe Vásquez-Lavín | Alex Godoy-Faúndez |  
Country:
CHILE
Keyword(s):
Hydro-economic model, climate change, agriculture, irrigation, hydrology
Files: 

Abstract

Agriculture is one of the most vulnerable economic sectors to the impacts of climate change, specifically those related with expected changes in water availability. Using a spatially distributed hydro-economic model, the study assesses the distributional impacts of climate change, considering the geographical location of each farmer’s community and the spatial distribution of water resources at basin scale. A hydrological model, the SWAT model, describes the basin hydrology, while farmers’ economic responses are represented using a non-linear agricultural supply model. We simulated a reduction in both water endowment -by perturbing the hydrologic model with a regionalized climate change scenario- and agricultural yields, in order to assess the behavior of farmers’ communities. We also assess the effectiveness of a water policy aimed to decrease the vulnerability of farmers’ communities to climate change. At the aggregated level we found relatively small impacts, consistent with existent literature; however, we found large distributive impacts among both farmer’s communities and agricultural activities. The water policy showed to be effective to reduce those impacts, but our results suggest the existence of unwanted effects on rainfed agriculture.
Theme:
4. Water policy and governance
Abstract ID:
508
Submit by:
Rafaella Oliveira Baracho
Author(s):
Rafaella Oliveira Baracho | Oscar de Moraes Cordeiro Netto |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
Agenda 21, drinking water supply, Brazil
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Abstract

The topic of Global Agenda 21 related to drinking water supply and sanitation was necessary and adequate to the Brazilian reality and a challenge that should be faced in 1992 by the country and the government. Thus, based in 1992 information existing, it is clear the great importance of  the execution and implementation of actions related to water supply and sanitation in the day to day investment and planning following Brazilian Agenda 21.

Which is observed on the evolution historic of sanitation activities between 1992 and 2015 is that despite the total amount of investment have increased steadily over the years, inequality of sanitation and water supply conditions between regions remains uneven, as identified in 1992. Since the signing of the Brazilian Agenda 21, the evolution in the legal and institutional framework, as well as new ways of planning and diagnosis of the real situation of sanitation services (including intermittent data, for example), has contributed not only to be known to real situation of sanitation in Brazil, but also as tools to be made better investments. However, the need for investments in the implementation, expansion and maintenance of water and sewage infrastructure in Brazil is significant and urgent: the deficit and inequalities between regions are large and need to be overcome. Although the data show wide necessity of structural measures, it is noteworthy that the non-structural measures, i.e. those whose purpose is to provide management and administrative support in the provision of services, must also be applied to ensure the sustainability of services and their organization.

About rural sanitation, it is clear that the desired Agenda 21 Global and its correspondent in Brazil in 1992 is still far from being met. Few programs for rural sanitation, although the experience of Integrated System of Rural Sanitation (SISAR) has been successful. The National Basic Sanitation Plan (PLANSAB) brings a specific program for basic sanitation for rural communities and traditional population, but the National Rural Sanitation Program began only in September 2015.

It is also noted that the goals set in PLANSAB are important to expand and provide quality sanitation services, as well as being the basis to monitor and supervise the implementation of the proposed works, projects and programs. However, it is not possible to follow the evolution of the indicators, as a new and updated national sanitation research has not yet been released, so it is still not possible to say whether the planned actions are applied in fact.

Finally, the Brazilian Agenda 21, on the topic of sanitation and water supply, has been developing and evolving since 1992. This development occurred not only in terms of service and quality, but also from an institutional point of view, although more investment is needed to achieve the universalization and equity of services in quantity and quality for all, in all regions.

 

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
507
Submit by:
Cristiane Nascimento
Author(s):
Cristiane Cunha Nascimento | Silvanio Costa | Anairam Melo | Maria Caroline Mendonça | Helenice Garcia | Jose do Patrocinio Alves | Carlos Alexandre Borges Garcia |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
Water quality, reservoirs, Northeast Brazil
Files: 

Abstract

Population growth and technological development have consequences as intense and diverse use of aquatic ecosystems, such as reservoirs, causing a reduction in its water quality. Thus, it is necessary the conduct of monitoring and managing programs of these systems in order to improve it according to the various application purposes. In this work, samples were taken considering the dry and rainy seasons, between the years of 2013 and 2014, in the reservoirs "Cotton" and "Glory", located in Nossa Senhora da Glória city, Sergipe, Brazil. Trophic State Index (TSI) and Water Quality Index (WQI) were used. It was determined the parameters such as conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and chlorophyll for each reservoir. Regarding the evaluated physicochemical variables established by Resolution number 357/05 of the National Environmental Council (CONAMA-Brazil) for rivers “class 2”, it was found that the reservoirs are dilapidated, with values much higher than allowed. These nutrients are indicators of the water body eutrophication phenomenon. TSI has been applied to the reservoirs and it was found that for Algodoeiro in the first and second collection campaign it was classified as mesotrophic. However, because of the increase of rainfall in 2014, mainly in August, this reservoir changed their condition to eutrophic, which may occur possible implications for water quality, but still at acceptable levels. On the other hand, Gloria reservoir is in a state of super-eutrophication, compromising its use for irrigation purposes. As for IQAR, the reservoirs were classified in Class IV, with rates ranging from 3.5-4.5 ("Algodoeiro") and 4.4-4.6 ("Gloria"), indicating a critically degraded environment or too polluted enabling corroborate the results of the EIT and underscoring the need for control measures of reservoir water quality. Regarding the WQI test, the reservoirs were classified in Class IV, with rates ranging from 3.5-4.5 (Algodeiro) and 4.4-4.6 (Glória), indicating a critically degraded or heavily polluted environment, which corroborate with the results found by TSI, indicating the need for constant monitoring of reservoir water quality.

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
494
Submit by:
Carlos Alexandre Borges Garcia
Author(s):
Helenice Leite Garcia | Carlos Alexandre Borges Garcia | Maria Caroline Silva Mendonça | Igor Santos Silva | Silvânio Silvério Lopes da Costa | Rennan Geovanny Oliveira Araújo |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
Water Quality Index, Trophic State Index, Fuzzy Logic
Files: 

Abstract

Among all the basic needs for human survival it is possible to highlight the vital importance of water in all processes. Thus, assessment of water quality, not only, the amount of water is required and should be made based on studies to characterize the quality in order to define their application and even its reuse. Some of these studies are represented mathematically by a Water Quality Index (WQI) and the Trophic State Index (TSI) which can classify water reservoirs, for example, according to the incidence of eutrophication process. For this purpose, the literature contains several WQI's which can be applied, such as IQAR (IAP), O-IQA, IQA and PW-CPCB-IQA, as well as for the TSI proposed by Carlson. However, in these applications there is a need for obtaining many physicochemical and biological parameters which make the application and technique dearer. In this context, to characterize the water body reliably, it has been used faster numerical techniques requiring fewer environmental parameters. In this work, there was the study of the water body of the dam Macela in Itabaiana, Sergipe, determining algebraically WQI and STI and using fuzzy logic. The parameters which define the application and water classification according to the criteria and guidelines set by CONAMA resolution No. 357/2005 were used. The indices calculated for water quality of the dam of Macela (IQAR (6.0 - extremely polluted), O-IQA (2,16 - very) bad), PW-IQA (9.49 - minimum quality), CPCB-IQA (20.13 - very bad) and IQARfuzzy (6.3 - extremely polluted)) show that this is extremely polluted and in a hipereutrofia state, making necessary a government intervention, public awareness programs for the water body may be sustainably used.

Theme:
3. Water security in a changing world
Abstract ID:
493
Submit by:
Carolina Alexandra Perret
Author(s):
Carolina Perret | Stefany Salcedo Gustavson |  
Country:
PERU
Keyword(s):
water security, catchment modelling, peruvian central selva, water quantity
Files: 

Abstract

The fluvial systems are constantly subjected to pressures of use that affect their availability. Anthropogenic activities such as agriculture, cattle raising, irrigation, deforestation, all exacerbated by population growth, alter the natural conditions of the watersheds. The watershed "San Alberto" is a classic example of this problem; despite being a critical watershed in the region – because it is one of the main sources of water for human consumption in the district of Oxapampa,  because it is located inside the National Park Yanachaga Chemillén, and  because it originates in the cloud forest of the zone – the watershed still lacks adequate management to protect the watershed.

The water that flows through the micro-watershed originates from rainfall, springs, and fog captured by the cloud forest. These sources  provide the stream  with water year-round, enabling the stream to reliably supply drinking water to the city of Oxapampa (INRENA, 2005). Because of its importance as a source of drinking water for a large population, it is a priority area for the local government and for national research.

It is crucial to understand the dynamics of river systems to be able to assess and manage the territory from a watershed approach; unfortunately, the availability of relevant data from water resources is limited and in many cases non-existent, making it impossible to develop accurate predictions and perform comprehensive analyzes of water resources (Chu & Steinman, 2009).

At present, hydrological modeling has been developed as a support tool for decision-making in the efficient management of watersheds and ecosystems (Yener et al., 2007). One of the most well-known software packages used worldwide is the Hydrological Modeling System of the Hydrological Engineering Center, developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. (HEC-HMS); it is a free software program that provides a variety of options to simulate precipitation-runoff processes and flow transit (Feldman, 2000

The HEC-HMS is used in a wide range of hydrological situations, ranging from the analysis of water supply and hydrological flooding of large basins, to the study of surface runoff of micro-basins. His system facilitates the treatment of hydrological information by including procedures designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, model and present geo-referenced data (Estrada & Pacheco, 2012).

Based on the above considerations, this research intends to simulate and evaluate the water availability of the San Alberto micro-basin and to understand the flow system using the HEC-HMS software, in order to provide information that can be used in the proper management of water resources of the District.

There are many hydrographic basins with the same climatic, physiographic, geological and geomorphological conditions as San Alberto (within the same region of the Yanachaga mountains), that have the pressure to supply water to important populated centers of the province. For this reason, this research is an important pilot of a replicable condition in various sectors of the area.

Theme:
A. Bridging science and policy
Abstract ID:
492
Submit by:
Alex Godoy-Faúndez
Author(s):
Gabriel Candia | Roberto Ponce | Diego Rivera | Alex Godoy-Faúndez |  
Country:
CHILE
Keyword(s):
Hydrometeorological, risk assessment, climate change, crops, Chile. PEER, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Center
Files: 

Abstract

Based on meteorological forecast for the next 50 years, crops are highly vulnerable to climate change effects. Large precipitations in the northern desert, and extended drought in south-central Chile seriously impact farmers and the industrialized agriculture. In the last 40 years, over 180.000 people in Chile have been affected by severe weather conditions and the reported losses in the agricultural sector exceeded US$ 1,000 million. These figures are due in part to inadequate risk reduction strategies, which place the emphasis on post-disaster reaction rather than a long-term scientific-based risk management.

A key element for risk analysis is aggregating the information of the several risk constituents, namely, natural hazard variables, system response variables, and decision making variables. This study presents a platform for hydro-meteorological risk assessment on maize and sugar beet in Chile, two crops with a market share of over 65% of the seed industry produced in Chile. The platform uses state of the art models for crop production, empirical based natural hazard models, and a rational treatment of uncertainties. The computation of risk is based on the risk assessment methodology developed by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Center PEER to model seismic risk in infrastructure. The main goal of the platform is to aid researchers and decision makers to quantify risk in terms of annual rates of exceedance of relevant risk decision variables such as dollar losses, crop yield deficit, recovery time, etc.

The platform, developed as a MATLAB user interface, is structured in three modules. The first module allows to determine basic weather variables at any point in the territory, using daily records from precipitation and temperature gauges, and data interpolation using different techniques (SBE, IDWM, CCWM, MLR), which enables to model the epistemic uncertainty. This information is used to compute annual rates of exceedance and probability distribution functions for daily precipitation and daily temperatures.

The second module uses the FAO Penman-Monteith equation to characterize the maize and sugar beet response to water stress. The platform evaluates the crops evapotranspiration from standard meteorological data such as precipitation, temperature, humidity and wind speed, and is currently the standard for crop production. Crop parameters specific to local conditions and the random variability of key parameters is also taken into account. The third module deals with the evaluation of risk variables; it computes the relative reduction in crop yield as a function of the reduction in evapotranspiration and the estimation of the market value of each crop.

The potential uses of the platform range from the quantification of climate risks, the managing of water resources, and design of mitigation strategies. This approach will aid farmers and decision makers to quantify risks and its willingness to accept losses in their annual planning year by year, without complex climatic models.

Theme:
1. Water, sanitation and health
Abstract ID:
491
Submit by:
Romina Battistella
Author(s):
Monica Morvillo | Romina Battistella | Irene Ortega Paredes |  
Country:
ARGENTINA
Keyword(s):
groundwater,arsenico, kriging
Files: 

Abstract

This work present a predictive map of arsénico (As) in Santa Rosa basin, Catamarca Province, Argentina, in order to provide a tool for urban planning towards the reduction of disease risk in local and neighboring population.

Arsenic presence in the whole Chacopampean region and its effects on human health has been documented extensively. Because the illness prevalence presents particular characteristics in Argentina, the local medical community calls it HACRE (hidroarsenisismo cronico regional endemico) and makes necessary  epidemiologic studies of the whole region, to prepare the settlers of the risks of its consumption. Several Catamarca regions posses natural arsenic values that overcome the limits established by the Argentina Food Safety Code (CAA) of 0,05 mg/l and for the World Health Organization (WHO) of 0,01 mg/l. The arsenic presence behavior is erratic, in the vertical and horizontal planes, imparing to directly observe distribution patterns. Hence the need for spatial interpolation techniques that allow represent the global and local trend of the element.

Groundwater sampling was carried out  in 2014, with private and municipal sites. The dataset arises from 72 wells, to a máximum depht of about 250 m, distributed over the whole alluvial plain, that include the study area. Santa Rosa Basin is part of the Rio Sali-Dulce Basin. Belongs to Sierras Pampeanas geological Province. The outcropping in the study region correspond to metamorphic rocks and  Precambrian - Paleozoic igneous intrusions and Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary cover.

Heavy metals were analized by atomic absorption, using AA300 HGA 800 Perkin Elmer equipment. Datasets were statistically analyzed obtaining a minimum of 0,003 mg/l and a maximum of 0,4 mg/l of As. For interpolation, the geostatistical Kriging method applied to each site unsampled “s”, a predicted value Vk (s) which linearly combines the observed or available values {v (s1) ... v (sn)}, considering the random nature of geo-referenced data V (s) plus two characteristic aspects of spatial processes, these are, the tendency μ (s) and parameterized spatial autocorrelation by variogram function g (h), expressed through a model structural additive or V (s) = μ (s) + δ (s).

The semivariogram function Var 1/2 [δ (s + h) -δ (s)] = g (h), measures the variability increases of the variable (As), relative to the separation between sites. The advantage of Kriging, unlike deterministic interpolation criteria, is that considers the distances and directions in which it governs the influence, producing more exact representations of reality and contributes a minimal estimation error; thus, being able to realize a better planning of the use of safe groundwater resources bearing in mind the spatial distribution of naturally occurring pollutants.

Theme:
1. Water, sanitation and health
Abstract ID:
480
Submit by:
NASIR AHMED
Author(s):
Nasir Ahmed | Pradeep Aggarwal |  
Country:
BANGLADESH
Keyword(s):
Stable isotopes, carbon-14, shallow and deep aquifers, recharge, arsenic, salinity.
Files: 

Abstract

A key to sustainable management of water resources is having the knowledge and scientific basis needed to make the right decisions. The application of isotopic techniques in Bangladesh over the last few years have proved valuable to improve our understanding on the behaviour of groundwater systems in the coastal areas. In the southern part of the country, groundwater salinization limits the supply of fresh water to the expanding population, irrigation system and industrial production. The young (Holocene) alluvial deposits in the southern part of deltaic basin are mostly affected with high arsenic water. The arsenic contamination (having highest concentration of 711 µg/L) crisis in the shallow aquifers of coastal area (Khulna, Satkhira, Bagerhat, Barisal, Patuakhali, Barguna, Chandpur and Lakshmipur) has engendered a wide variety of responses to the challenge of safe drinking water supply. Because deeper aquifers in this region generally have low arsenic concentrations they represent a potential source of safe drinking water. An assessment of the potential for development is needed, however. The challenges facing the national projects are to identify a source of safe drinking water and to protect it from degradation. The deep aquifers are subjected to intensive pumping causing large drawdown of piezometric head. It sometimes causes the dewatering of confined aquifer and reduces the production section of wells. A systematic environmental isotope (δ18O, δD, δ13C, 3H and 14C) including geochemical study was carried out to understand the groundwater flow system, sources of aquifer recharge and salinization, and connectivity between different water bodies. The study work was associated with Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) and national Technical Cooperation (TC) projects of International Atomic Energy Commission (IAEA). Based on the determination of the stable and radioactive isotope composition, these isotope hydrology projects give important results and form the basis for the decision of the future protection and exploitation of the aquifers. The δ18O compositions of shallow (<70m depth) and deep (>145m depth) groundwaters range from –7.50 to –2.19‰ and –4.44 to –1.87‰ VSMOW respectively. The stable isotope data indicates that all groundwater is derived from rainfalls and/or flood water. The stable isotopes of adjacent river waters are close to those of shallow groundwater suggesting mixing with river water may be occurring. Both the river and shallow groundwaters have high chloride concentrations associated with high EC values. The deep groundwater ages range from 8,000 to 24,000 years BP. In depth dependence plot of Carbon-14 values, groundwaters show relatively low pmC values (5.35 to 34.8 pmC) and these groundwaters appear to be the end member of the deep groundwater flow systems in Bengal Delta, where it mixes with the chloride rich (average 502 mg/L) water. This deep water salinity can possibly be attributed to contribution of salts from the marine connate water. The carbon-14 data further confirm the observation based on oxygen isotope values that these relatively fresh, but a few exception of high salinity in a few deep groundwaters have been recharged in different climatic regimes thousands of years ago.

Theme:
4. Water policy and governance
Abstract ID:
478
Submit by:
Kaoara Batista de Sa
Author(s):
Patrícia Silva Cáceres | Lúlio Descartes Silva Azevedo | Kaoara Batista de Sa | Daniel Richard Santana |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
tariffs, water conservation, rational use
Files: 

Abstract

A great deal of economic research has been carried out over pricing policies as a mechanism for managing urban water consumption. In Brazil, water tariffs are structured using increasing block rates that assign an escalating value to aggregate volumes of water use. Such increasing block rate structure subsidises low water costs for small-volume users by charging high water costs for large-volume users. In one way, higher block tariffs would serve as an incentive for water conservation in the household. However, the same can not be said for low-end consumers that use less than 10m³/month, because even if the consumption is less than 10 m³, this will always be the minimum amount to be paid. Since 2005, residential multi-storey buildings are obliged to install a water meter per dwelling unit. In one hand, individual water metering per dwelling is capable of promoting fair charging over domestic consumption. On the other hand, if a series of individual dwellings in multi-storey buildings use less than 10m³/month, they are not encouraged to use water rationally, because such pricing policy charges a minimum budget destined to public system maintenance. In addition, a residue is taxed on the individual consumption, which before the individualization did not. With this question in mind, this paper sets out to explore whether there was an increase tariffs, block rates individually calibrated multi-storey buildings in the Federal District, Brazil.

For this, it was selected 12 buildings for an initial pilot project. The assumption adopted was that they all belonged to the same income level (high), but they had very different consumption patterns among themselves. We analyzed 36 months (June 2013 to May 2016). Soon after, there was the confrontation of the general water meter (total and apportionment) versus the individual sum of (total and average of the individual). Recalling the minimum consumption adjustment and that the difference found between the volume measured by the overall water meter and the sum of the volumes measured in individual water meters will be billed or, in the case of a negative difference, offset the inclusion of a water meter that meets the common area of the condominium. The rates were obtained bringing the average present value (May 2016).

The aim of the study was therefore to examine whether the current tariff structure of the Federal District goes against the rational use of water policy. The result proved that more than 50% of the buildings the service provider earned higher profit after individualization. It also presented the results for each building, indicating the percentage of user units that pay less and pay more, when compared to the amount that would be paid if it were adopted apportionment.  To propose changes to the current policy now, it is suggested the expansion of the study sample so that it is possible to infer the tariff policy promotes (or not) the rational use of water.

Theme:
4. Water policy and governance
Abstract ID:
473
Submit by:
NIU Cunwen
Author(s):
Cunwen Niu | Yangwen JIA | Yaqin QIU | Chunfeng HAO | Wenhai ZHANG |  
Country:
CHINA
Keyword(s):
Eco-compensation, Hydrological project regulation, Eco-environmental flow
Files: 

Abstract

Purpose. This study aims to guarantee the ecological flow of the river in the Weihe River Basin, to construct a sustainable water quantity regulation mechanism, the ecological regulation compensation is analyzed from the view of demand side and supply side.

Key issues. Weihe is the largest tributary of the Yellow River, the water problems of the Yellow River is also existed in the Weihe River. The WEIHE River is known as “the little Yellow River”. In recent years, Weihe comprehensive improvement project basically completed, the Weihe river basin water ecological environment has improved, Weihe River Basin Ecological scheduling has played a positive role. Shaanxi Province, ecological protection and construction target of Weihe basin based on the water situation, determine the different target of different ecological restoration, ecological environment of dry tributary of the main control section of the water requirement (suitable, minimum and lower limit) control index, put forward measures of water dispatching of short and long term, but is to ensure sustained and concerted development of ecological environment and social economy that must be based on the status quo, respect history, guarantee on the downstream water fair, water ecological compensation for the implementation of regional ecological regulation measures and the main maintenance of Weihe basin ecological environment.

Methodology. To ensure the sustainable coordinated development of ecological environment and social economy, must be based on the status quo, respect history, guarantee on the downstream water fair, water ecological compensation for the implementation of regional ecological regulation measures and the main maintenance of Weihe basin ecological environment. On the basis of domestic and international research on the basis of ecological scheduling, the establishment of a reasonable economic compensation system to solve the contradictions between the parties to eliminate the adverse effects of ecological scheduling. Follow the "if he use, he must compensation; who benefit (harm) who pays" principle, the establishment of compensation between the subject and the object of interest mechanism, negotiation mechanism, and compensation funds calculation and allocation mechanism and compensation standard system framework.

Results. Based on the policy, legal, economic, social, ecological and environmental perspective, and puts forward some effective measures to protect water ecological compensation ecological scheduling in the Weihe River basin, including many aspects of system, management and technology. Some advice is given from the supply side (such as loss of ecological regulation, hydropower station, reservoir irrigation area), and the demand side (the water along the river government administrative departments, people and other ecological system of water ecological compensation spokesman).

Results implications. The study is believed to be of a referential value for policy-making in the water management in the WEIHE River basin under the changing environment.

Theme:
4. Water policy and governance
Abstract ID:
472
Submit by:
Maria Edelcides Gondim de Vasconcelos
Author(s):
Maria Edelcides Gondim de Vasconcelos | Bruna Letícia Oliveira da Silva | Henrique de Castro Silva | Iran Oikawa Cordeiro | Rafael Aguiar de Miranda | Rômulo Henrique Teixeira do Egito |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
water policy , Brazilian semiarid
Files: 

Abstract

The semiarid areas deserve special mention among the regions subjected to water scarcity, because their uneven distribution of rainfall, the acute droughts and the high evapotranspiration. This research evaluates the public policy of water scarcity facing the Brazilian semiarid region. This area of 969,589.4 km² is characterized by shallow soils, intermittent rivers and scarce water resources underground. The average annual rainfall is about 750 mm, the evapotranspiration reaches 2.500mm by year. The main public policy developed for this area is the construction of dams. This storage practice began in the nineteenth century. Examples of large reservoirs are Orós (2.5 billion cubic meters - bcm), Coremas – Mãe D’Agua (1.4 bcm), Castanhão (6.7 bcm), the lakes of Sobradinho, (34.1 bcm), Itaparica, (11 bcm) and Xingó (3.8 bcm). The dams are used for power generation, human supply, industrial use, irrigation and fish farming. The high evapotranspiration is the most important limiting factor. Techniques, based on plastic films, were not efficient. Another problem is the water quality. The lack of renewal of the vertical stratifications leads to quality degradation. The negotiated allocation of water, adopted by the National Water Agency (ANA) aims to control the various uses. After an analysis, there were created criteria and rules among the different consumers. With the participation of public agencies, consumers and   representatives of the community are created local water committees, a maintenance and monitoring program of the water infrastructure. Water wells appear as a supply alternative. But the potential is limited by the presence of crystalline basement, flows below 2m³ / hour, low quality and predominance of salinity. As public policy the Freshwater Program (Programa Água Doce) installed desalination plants for rural communities. The maintenance costs and the waste production resulting from the high salt concentration are big challenges. Rain water harvesting programs are widely used in semiarid regions. In Brazil, the main program is the P1MC (Program 1 Million Cisterns). The system uses the roof of homes where rainwater is collected. It started in 2000 and until the month of August 2016 almost 600,000 cisterns were built. The biggest challenge is to ensure water quality through educational activities of health workers. Although considered an important tool for coping with drought, water reuse still is not presented as public policy. There exist only small pilot projects. Brazil has low coverage rates in the treatment of sewage which hinders the adoption of large-scale reuse. The policies adopted to face the drought in the Brazilian semiarid region are still timid in the face of opportunities and the resulting worsening prospects for global warming. Although present legislation of advanced water resources, with the principles of decentralization and participation of users, Brazil still needs to advance in monitoring and social control of public policies, in particular for water resources in semiarid region.

Theme:
3. Water security in a changing world
Abstract ID:
467
Submit by:
Yoshiya Touge
Author(s):
Yoshiya Touge | Kenji Tanaka | Eiichi Nakakita | So Kazama |  
Country:
JAPAN
Keyword(s):
Snow melting, Land surface model, SiBUC, Zeravshan river
Files: 

Abstract

In Central Asia, since most of water resource is supplied in mountainous region in winter as snowfall, snow process is key factor to reproduce seasonal water resources. However, in the previous works with land surface model, river discharge was earlier estimated. Therefore in this research, snow process in land surface model was validated in Zarafshan river basin which is the third biggest river basin in Aral Sea Basin. Upstream region is located in Pamir mountains in which altitude is more than 5000m with several glaciers.

In this research, satellite analysis was firstly conducted to validate land surface results with comparing snow cover estimated by MOD10 product in MODIS. And it was found that snow melt is overestimated in high altitude mesh where snow cover disappeared immediately in spring. In this basin, even though there is no big dam, peak discharge is in summer due to snow melt, however, analyzed peak is on April and discharge in summer is much lower. Therefore in this research, sub-grid scale snow existence and altitude dependency of meteorological forcing were studied.

To clarify sub-grid scale impacts on snow melting process, four analyses at deferent spatial resolutions which are 20km, 10km, 5km and 1km were compared and it was found that glacier melting is much better in higher resolution since glaciers exist only in limited region in high mountain which spatial scale is much smaller than mesh size. To consider this mixture of several altitude bands in mesh for lower resolution analysis, altitude mosaic scheme was developed which is applied instead of land use mosaic when the mesh is higher than 1000m. In this scheme, vertical water balance is analyzed in each altitude band, and accumulated with weight of each altitude bands’ area. With this scheme, 20km resolution analysis was not different much from 1km resolution analysis.

Secondary, altitude dependency of meteorological forcing for land surface analysis was studied. In addition to air temperature and air pressure, downward short wave radiation and air humidity was changed in height. As for long wave radiation, its altitude dependency was calculated by differential form of Stefan-Boltzmann law and one of specific humidity was modified to assume that relative humidity is stable in height. As a result, by considering altitude dependency especially long wave radiation, analyzed peak discharge was improved.

Through these trials, land surface model was improved, but there are still early trends on snow. In the future study, short wave radiation will be modified depending on sun duration time, slope rate and its direction. After accuracy of snow melt results improved, climate change impacts to monthly river discharge will be analyzed.

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
460
Submit by:
Marcelo Fernandes Vieira
Author(s):
Marcelo Fernandes Vieira | Álvaro Alberto de Araújo | Paula Viotti | Rosângelca Bergamasco | Angélica Salcedo Vieira |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
removal, Moringa, water, purification, kinetic
Files: 

Abstract

Nowadays, the potential adverse effects of emerging contaminants in the environment have become a subject of study. Once phamarceuticals have a high consumption worldwide, they represent a considerable fraction among all those contaminants. Since the conventional treatment technologies are not effective for the removal of these contaminants, they can be detected in treated wastewater effluents. Moreover, studies have shown that adsorption is a great complementary treatment due to its simplicity, low cost and high eficiency. In this context, this paper presents the studies on the removal of potassium diclofenac by using babassu activated carbon (CA) and pods of the Moringa oleífera Lam (MO) chemically treated. Therefore, adsorption kinetic studies were performed by placing the diclofenac solution with the adsorbent and kept in a thermostat bath at 298 K under a 150 rpm. Samples were taken at different time intervals until reaching the equilibrium time. Then, the samples were analyzed in a UV spectrophotometer using a wave length of 276 nm. For the activated carbon study, the tests were conducted using 0,05 g of adsorbent for 48 hours. On the other hand, the biosorption essays were carried out using 0,1 g of adsorbent for 24 hours. For biosorption, no significant change in DCF concentration after 6 hours. For activated carbon adsorption, the adsorption capacity increased continuously all the time observed. A comparison between the cited adsorbents shows that at 6 hours the biosorbent is the best adsorbent for diclofenac removal. On that time, the biosorbent had a removal percentage of 66,11 %, while the carbon activated obtained a removal efficiency of 30,83 %. The kinetics experimental data were fitted to pseudo-first, pseudo-second and intra-particle diffusion models. An evaluation between the kinetics models indicates that the pseudo-second model was best fitted for adsorption on MO (R2 > 0,97). The kinetic studies also confirmed that the adsorption on activated carbon was followed by the intra-particle diffusion model. (R2 > 0,98). The adsorption mechanism was described by equilibrium isotherm. Aiming the isotherm construction, different concentrations of diclofenac solutions were used (20-200 mg/L) under the same operating conditions. The essays were conducted for 6 and 30 hours for biosorption and carbon activated adsorption, respectively. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed for Langmuir and Freundlich models. However, the Freundlich model better fitted the experimental data for both adsorbents (R2 > 0,97 and R2 > 0,95 for adsorption on CA and MO, respectively). In conclusion, the pod of Moringa oleifera Lam chemically treated seems to be efficient in the removal of diclofenac. It is also a low cost alternative when compared to conventional adsorbents, like activated carbon.

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
459
Submit by:
Marcelo Fernandes Vieira
Author(s):
Marcelo Fernandes Vieira | Natália Cândido Homem | Angelica Salcedo Vieira | Rosângela Bergamasco |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
adsorption, removal, regeneration, Atrazine
Files: 

Abstract

Studies have shown that the use of herbicides to control organisms can trigger environmental problems, such as surface and ground water contamination, and in humans, can cause problems in reproductive and developmental systems. Atrazine (ATZ) is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Recently, it was included in the priority substances list of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and European Comission. Considering the toxic potential of this herbicide, suitable treatment methods need to be developed to remove it from contaminated water. Adsorption is one of the most used methods to treat water and many studies have been conducted in order to obtain low cost adsorbents, like agricultural sources biomass, biological, and industrial by-products. The plant Moringa oleifera Lam (MO) belongs to Moringaceae family, and is a tropical tree that grows naturally in India, South-Saharan region and South America. The parts of its fruit, especially the seeds have been employed as coagulating agents for water treatment and as biosorbents, being the MO seed husks a by-product of its uses. Also, an adsorbent material that not only possessed a good adsorption capacity, but show favourable regeneration properties, would contribute to a significant reduction of the overall cost of the process. Therefore, successful regeneration of the adsorbent can be considered as a key process for determining the applicability of an adsorbent in a water-purification application. This study evaluated the biosorption potential of ATZ by MO seed husks in fixed-bed column, and its regeneration capacity. The experiments were performed in a glass column, packed with 3 g of biosorbent (13.5 cm bed depth) and fed in upward mode with an ATZ solution of 5 mg/L and pH 7, at a constant flow rate (1 mL/min). Five cycles of biosorption–desorption were performed at the same flow rate (1 mL/min), using ultra-pure water as eluent. The breakthrough curves obtained presented no differences in behaviour, maintaining the same trend throughout all five cycles. However, there was a slight decline in the saturation time, and in the amount of ATZ biosorbed per gram of MO. On the other hand, as the removal efficiency is obtained from the relation between the amount of ATZ transported to the bed and the time required to reach saturation, this parameter remained almost constant. Hence, it was possible to achieve five cycles of biosorption–desorption without loss of biosorption capacity. This study shows that Moringa oleifera Lam seed husks can be used as an effective biosorbent in the removal of ATZ from aqueous solutions using a fixed-bed column. Moreover, the biosorbent could be regenerated using a simple and cheap process, highlighting it as a distinctive material in relation to other biosorbent materials presented in the literature. It is important to point out that the alternative forms of water treatment, including biosorption using biomass of agricultural sources as biosorbents, are of great importance, since it would be a viable alternative for water treatment in developing countries, poorest regions and in places where obtaining water drinking is still a challenge.

Theme:
6. Water and sustainable growth
Abstract ID:
456
Submit by:
Malay Mukhopadhyay
Author(s):
Malay Mukhopadhyay
Country:
INDIA
Keyword(s):
Geomorphosite-geotourism, River source area, Perception study, Economic development, Environmental Flow
Files: 

Abstract

Introduction

India is blessed with highly diversified geomorphological formations. But some way or the other they either remain unexplored or get associated with some religious manifestations. This research work is an attempt to designate the source area of a river as a geomorphosite and carry out sustainable educative geotourism such that the riparian people would get a way out for economic sustenance.

Apart from some renowned rivers most of the river source areas in India are not marked. In most of the cases the river source areas are generally inaccessible. The author makes an appeal for designating river source areas as geomorphosite and initiate geotourism. The present author has installed a Marker Stone (2015) at the river source area of River Ajay at Saraun village of Bihar in eastern India with the perspective of geomorphosite-geotourism. This designation of geomorphosite to such a source area should have the potentiality of geotourism. This can be helpful in promoting the economic prosperity of the remote villages at the river source area as well as restoring the river source water infrastructure.

Problem

In the present day, there has been irrational water usage in the global arena particularly in the developing countries. Amidst all these the impact on the tropical rivers are the most due to the ever increasing population pressure of the developing countries. Riparian isolated villagers have little holistic knowledge but have deep local perception of their surrounding natural elements. On the contrary, the planners bearing a holistic approach execute the plans ignoring the riparian people’s perception. It is seen that there is a gap between the riparian people’s traditional perception and the planner’s sophisticated approach. This problem is mainly dealt in this research work. 

Methodology

In order to understand the perception of the local people in connection with the scientific-educative perspective of geomorphosites, an intense literature study had been carried out. Household surveys of different age-sex-economic categories of this river source village have been carried out with the help of interview schedule and selected the site for installation of the Marker Stone.

Results

After getting positive response from the villagers the author installed the aforesaid Marker Stone at the Ajay River source area. Majority of the respondents viewed that the installation of the Marker Stone at the source area gave a special recognition to their village. They also mentioned that such an installation would bring tourists and economically develop their locality. They even added that such an installation would not only bring economic development through tourism, but would also enhance the villagers’ recognition and self-respect (http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20160516-why-it-is-hard-to-find-the-source-of-rivers-like-the-amazon).

Implications of the study

Geomorphosite-geotourism can attract tourists to such unexplored places where the tourists can educate and entertain themselves with the geomorphological explanation of such sites. Eventually, it will not only support the village economy through tourism, but also strengthen the self-respect of the villagers. The author has signified the restoration of water infrastructure through the concept of Environmental flow.

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
447
Submit by:
Carlos Alexandre Borges Garcia
Author(s):
Carlos Alexandre Borges Garcia | Nathália Krissi Novaes Oliveira | Ranyere Lucena de Souza | Helenice Leite Garcia | Maria Caroline Silva Mendonça | José do Patrocínio Hora Alves |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
Groundwater, diagnosis, quality, potability
Files: 

Abstract

Groundwater is large percentage of sweet easily accessible water, and are often the only options for drinking water supply. In general, it have better quality due to interactions with the ground during percolation. In urban areas, however, various activities can compromise the quality and demand of this resource, such as installation of septic tank, wastewater without treatment or with inadequate treatment, improper disposal of solid waste, waterproofing recharge areas, storage of hazardous products underground or overhead tanks without sump, among others. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination of free aquifer in north zone of Aracaju/SE, through the analysis of physical, chemical and biological parameters of water samples from shallow wells, related to human activities and potential sources of contamination, and comparing with the limits for drinking water established by Decree N. 2,914/2011 of the Ministry of Health. Samples were collected in two campaigns, evaluating the effects of seasonality. The results showed that all samples were unfit for human consumption, at least two of the 39 analyzed parameters, and more significant changes in the dry period in most parameters. The concentrations of turbidity, nitrite, sodium, sulfate, fluoride, chloride, aluminum, barium, copper, iron, nickel and zinc did not exceed the limits for drinking water in the samples analyzed. Only free residual chlorine, cobalt and chromium were not detected in any of the studied points. The detection of toxic compounds such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene reveal a critical setting, and shows that more attention should be given to these parameters in potable for human consumption assessments.

Theme:
A. Bridging science and policy
Abstract ID:
442
Submit by:
Esra Şıltu
Author(s):
Aybala Koç Orhon | Esra Şıltu | Sibel Mine Güçver | Bilal Dikmen | Yakup Karaaslan |  
Country:
TURKEY
Keyword(s):
effluent limits, total maximum daily load, water quality management
Files: 

Abstract

Water quality is affected dominantly by wastewater discharges. Therefore, controlling discharges is of crucial importance in water quality management. For this purpose, effluent or discharge limits are applied. In general, there exist two types of discharge limits: technology based discharge limits and water quality based discharge limits. Currently, technology based discharge limits for prevail in Turkey by By-Law on Water Pollution Control. However, severe water quality problems in some river basins and incorporation of environmental quality standards for specific pollutants and priority substances into the national legislation entail the derivation of water quality based discharge limits.

In order to derive the water quality based discharge limits for Gediz River Basin and develop a methodology to be applied in other river basins in Turkey, a project has been initiated. Gediz River Basin is under pollution pressure due to the discharges of dense industrialization and urban wastewater discharges. In scope of the project, comprehensive monitoring studies were conducted both in water bodies and wastewater discharges and total maximum daily load was calculated considering the current water quality. Then, current pollutant load of each industrial and urban discharge was determined by using the monitoring data. The basin is divided in 10 water body groups and discharge limits were derived based on these groups. Total maximum daily load was divided between pollutant sources due to different scenarios for each water quality parameter.

The first step in the calculation of water quality based discharge limits was the controlling the pollutant concentration in the discharges. If water quality criteria for a parameter was not met in a water body, effluents were checked one by one in terms of pollutant concentration. Water quality based effluent limit was derived if the concentration of a parameter in discharge was above the regarding water quality criteria. Calculations were made both by considering the mixing zone and not considering the mixing zone. Discharge Test Software was used when considering the mixing zone. Otherwise, simple mass balance approach was adopted. However, the results of Discharge Test Software were not coherent and reliable when discharges were so close to each other and the water body was highly polluted. Hence, simple mass balance approach were applied in most of the cases. Water quality based discharge limits and required percent reduction in pollutant load were calculated for pollutant sources by mass balance approach.

In addition to the mass balance approach, discharge limits were calculated by deriving dilution factors based on flows for each discharge. Limits derived by this approach seem to be more practical in terms of implementation.

The outputs of this study is planned to be used in the regulatory studies and the methodology developed will be used for other river basins. Universities, research institutions and policy makers were cooperated in this study and scientific studies were integrated with water quality management policies.   

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
441
Submit by:
Rebecca Annick Nireti LAWANI
Author(s):
Rebecca Annick LAWANI | Nelly Carine KELOME | Micheline AGASSOUNON TCHIBOZO | Jechonias HOUNKPE |  
Country:
BENIN
Keyword(s):
Water quality, pollution, spatial-temporal variation, Delta of Oueme
Files: 

Abstract

The objective of this study is to assess the level of pollution of the river. Nine physicochemical parameters were measured at nine stations between March and October 2016, during periods of flood recession and flooding of the Ouémé River. The methods used are those recommended by the French Association of Normalization (AFNOR).The data were subjected to a univariate descriptive statistical analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The Leclercq Organic pollution index was used to assess the level of organic pollution. The values of measured parameters indicate a trend to organic pollution on all stations.

Theme:
4. Water policy and governance
Abstract ID:
422
Submit by:
Sara Medrano Lucas
Author(s):
Ana Burgos | Sara Medrano |  
Country:
MEXICO
Keyword(s):
Social capital, social learning, water security.
Files: 

Abstract

"Participation and social capital for watershed management: Evaluation of Water Safety organisms in Lower Balsas (Michoacán)"


Sara L. Medrano and Ana L. Burgos Luke 1 Tornadú2
1ENES-UNAM campus Morelia, ant. Patz road., Smedrano@lcambientales.unam.mx
2CIGA - UNAM campus Morelia, ant. Patz road., Aburgos@ciga.unam.mx

Social capital, social learning, water security.


Since the water crisis is a crisis of governance, in basins of high marginalization and geographical isolation becomes important local organization to promote water security (WS) with self-help project. The water context of the area where this research was developed has the following characteristics: seasonal climate, pronounced relief, so that the occurrence of flood peaks during the rainy season generates material losses and isolation, and in the dry season are presented intra-seasonal drought (heat wave) and from November to June, precipitation generates almost no high water deficit. The region is inserted into an institutional context in which public policies and agencies responsible are hierarchical and are disconnected from society. So in 2013 an engaging experience and building social capital in the Hydrographic System Under infiernillo, Balsas (Michoacan) was promoted, constituting four Water Safety Local Councils (WSLC) sub-basin scale. The process was facilitated by a civil association (CA) Balsas Group and an academic core (CIGA-UNAM). The COLSHID followed the adaptive management cycle for water protection risks communities’ scale but agreed to sub-basin scale. Since there are few studies that show that a genuine process of social maturity, this research helps to have evidence that these processes can lead to the governance of water resources, and help to understand the mechanisms occurred by which produce and develop more effective interventions that promote a scientific approach from the strength of social networks. The objective was to characterize the process of building social capital, considering its water contexts (problems) and institutional (regulatory frameworks and support). For a year participants were followed in real time to the activities of the four COLSHID for problem definition, action planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation time. For analysis indicators of participation, social learning, community ownership of the process and collective action were generated.

It was obtained as a result that the participatory social learning process generated double loop as communities showed inclusion of uncertainty, reflection and sound decision making. The peasants held accountable for most of the budget exercised, increasing confidence and helping to strengthen institutional agencies. Activities increased solidarity, trust and reciprocity between communities within and between sub-basins. Attendance, punctuality indicated continued interest and participation; joint activities and inter-ejidales movements showed effective collective action, however detected it is necessary to strengthen the sense of importance in the evaluation process and analysis of the diversity of actors indicates it is necessary to increase the number of members of different sectors within each agency (women, youth and people do not own land). It is concluded that local initiatives are essential for the management of rural water basins with highly precarious. Given the severe weakness of the institutional context, the continuity of these initiatives is hampered without the presence of external actors. 

Theme:
1. Water, sanitation and health
Abstract ID:
411
Submit by:
Haydeana Isabel Navarro Solis
Author(s):
Haydeana Isabel Navarro Solis | Aline del Carmen Gonzalez Canchola | Genoveva Rosano Ortega | Sofia Esperanza Garrido Hoyos | Pedro Avila Pérez |  
Country:
MEXICO
Keyword(s):
cyclic voltammetry, electrodeposition, waste water
Files: 

Abstract

In this research the identification and recovery of As present in the waters of rejection from reverse and deionization osmosis by cyclic voltammetry and electrodeposition is proposed, which have advantages over traditional techniques, such as low cost and recovery for new processes creating a safe and sustainable management of As. Arsenic contamination is a global problem. Prolonged exposure through contaminated water and food consumption can cause serious health damage or death. WHO recommends 0.010 mg L-1 (10 μgL-1) maximum limit As for drinking water. The presence of arsenic in natural waters is usually associated with natural and anthropogenic sources. In response to the problems mentioned, the need arises to monitor the concentration of arsenic in contaminated water, by techniques of high sensitivity at low concentrations arises.

There are different technologies to remove arsenic as reverse osmosis and capacitive deionization, however these processes generates waste water with high concentrations of As, 0.76 to 10 mg L -1, commonly called water rejection thereof having as final disposal environment.
The voltammetric methods for the quantification of arsenic are a viable option since they have high sensitivity, selectivity and low cost. The voltammetric method of chemical analysis is based on the interpretation of the current intensity curves - potential (I vs. E), generated from the electro oxidation or electro reduction of species in solution.

For detection of arsenic a conventional cell, a reference electrode (RE), of Ag0/ AgCl, a working electrode (WE) of platinum and an auxiliary electrode graphite (EC) in a potential range from +800 to -500 mV at a scan rate of 100 mV s-1of  were used. Calibration curves for As (III and V) with a R2 of 0.95 were performed with concentrations of 100 to 1 mg L-1 for As (V) the pH was adjusted to 2 with HCl and was used as background electrolyte 0.001 M KCl and 0.01 M KI which reduces the as (V), for As (III) it was used as background electrolyte with 0.01 M NaSO4 and 0.0001 M CuSO4, pH 5. The electrodeposition was conducted in water with synthetic concentrations of 1, 3, and 5 mg L-1 of As, pH 2.5 to 1.5 V in periods of 30 to 120 minutes using electrodes of copper and iron. In both methods the oxygen is displaced from solution by high purity nitrogen 99.9%.
For both cases the magnitude of the anodic peak is proportional to the concentration of As in solution, which is oxidized and reduced. Electrodeposition is feasible in acid and efficiency observed oscillates around 60%.

 

Theme:
3. Water security in a changing world
Abstract ID:
409
Submit by:
Toshiyuki MORIYAMA
Author(s):
 
Country:
JAPAN
Keyword(s):
smart rainwater house, rainwater harvesting, urban flood control, ecological house
Files: 

Abstract

Toshiyuki Moriyama,Katsuhiro Morishita,Shinobu Izumi, Koji Nishiyama
 
A smart rainwater house (SRH) is build for individual residence. Resident of this SRH is Toshiyuki Moriyama which is one of author for the experiment of smart rainwater tanks. Also SRH is a real ecological house. Recently, there are many kind of Zero Energy House (ZEH). The ZEH is cancel the energy usage with power made by solar panel. But it is not real ecology house,because its is considered the energy only. We should be consider about water especially rainwater is an important part of ecology. Also, ZEH is not consider about Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This SRH has planned to use Japanese traditional  structure. The Pillars and Beams are used local cedar and connected by plug made by wood and did not use metal hardware connection. This connection is planed to hold out about more 60 seconds before the collapse by strong earthquake more than expected magnitude. To control the moisture, instead of modern combination of waterproof breathable sheet and thermal insulation material, traditional combination of mud wall and stucco is used. These materials are recyclable and longer life than modern materials.  
Urbanization including development of residential area made a flash flood more frequently, and peak of discharge from urbanized watershed be faster and increase the amount of peak discharge.
And after the big earthquake, leakage of water pipe became a serious problem.
To avoid these situation, we have been developed smart rainwater tanks. These tanks can monitored via sensor network to visualize the amount of rainwater storage. Resident is possible to share the information of water storage in the specific area. SRH has this specs and storage information is possible to share via Internet Cloud and possible to control the pump to waste rainwater before the heavy rainfall by prediction of weather using SOM with Pattern recognition of Meteorological field.
Theme:
1. Water, sanitation and health
Abstract ID:
342
Submit by:
Fernando Soares
Author(s):
Fernando Soares | Naiane Conceicao |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
water, ice flakes, ice cubes, Escherichia coli
Files: 

Abstract

The water is essential to human survival and should be free from contamination, for use as a raw material of ice, it is essential that meets the hygienic-sanitary standards on water potability. This study aimed to analyze the microbiological quality of ice samples commercialized in the city of Coari – Amazonas state of Brazil. For this study were collected five samples of ice cubes and five of ice flakes on 5 different markets and factories (respectively) in the city of Coari - Amazonas. The analysis was accomplished through the filtration system with manual vacuum pump to the membrane filtration technique to detect the presence/absence of Escherichia coli (E. coli)in previously melted ice samples. According to the results, the ice cubes samples showed absence of E. coli microorganisms, however the ice flakes samples showed the presence of E. coli in 4 of 5 samples. Therefore, the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the ice flakes notes that this type of ice was inappropriate for consumption, according to the decree No. 2914 of December 2011 the Ministry of Health of Brazil, but many consumers use this type of ice to cool the water and drink it, point out that is not required that this type of ice is produced with clean water (only used for cooling food, provided that they are packed- the foods). So it is necessary that authorities inform the consumers about the risks that they are exposed to consume the product without adequate microbiological quality for human consumption.

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
331
Submit by:
Cristiane Nascimento
Author(s):
Erick C. Neves | Jamiel M. Oliveira | Cristiane C. Nascimento | George Ricardo S. Andrade | Iara F. Gimenez |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
Photocatalytic; quantum dots; methyl blue; nanocomposite
Files: 

Abstract

In the past few decades, the significant increase of environmental pollution caused by anthropogenic source has stimulated an intense research effort on optimizing and developing materials, specially in nanoscale, as a fast, economical and environmentally friendly alternatives for the conventional treatment methods. Among these environmental problems, the decontamination of natural water emerges as the most challenging field as it deals with all the biosphere health. In this work, bentonite was thiol-functionalized with 3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (BEN-thiol) and used to prepare nanocrystalline cadmium sulfide (CdS) by a simple one-pot method. BEN-thiol/CdS was used as a solar photocatalyst for the degradation of organic dye solutions. Thus, CdS nanocrystals were synthesized using cadmium acetate (9.867 mM) and thiourea (18.759 mM) aqueous solutions as precursors of Cd2+ and S2-, respectively. The reaction was performed at different reaction times and using different amounts of BEN-thiol to evaluate the growth of CdS nanocrystals. For the solar photocatalysis application, methyl blue dye was chosen due to its wide range of application in industry (e.g. textile industry). The optical properties of BEN-thiol/CdS nanocomposites were studied by UV/visible spectroscopy, which showed a systematically shifted towards longer wavelengths as the reaction goes on or decreasing the BEN-thiol amount, as a result of the particle growth. The average diameters of CdS were estimated by TEM and calculated from Brus’s model, showing particles with sizes ranging from 2-5 nm. Furthermore, XRD measurements indicated that CdS presents a cubic structure in all the nanocomposites. The degradation of aqueous methyl blue solutions (20 mL, 20 mg/L) was investigated by solar photocatalysis, being the samples exposed to sunlight from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. during the springer of 2016 (September-Octuber) under an average radiant exposure around 2900 kJ m−2 at the time of experiments). The temporal evolution of the dye degradation was studied by UV/visible measurement, which showed an efficiency of 70% under only 50 min of solar exposure. Other tests, such as photolysis (performed without the photocatalyst) and adsorption (performed under dark conditions), did showed any contribution to the decolorization process. Measurements of COD (chemical oxygen demand) showed a reduction of approximately 60%, which gives a measure of the degree of mineralization.

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
325
Submit by:
GEORGE ANDRADE
Author(s):
Nilson C.M. Santos | Silvanio S.L. Costa | Cristiane C. Nascimento | Carlos Alexandre Borges Garcia | Cintya D.A.E.S. Barbosa | George Ricardo Santana Andrade |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
Heavy metal sensor, Carbon dots, Green Chemistry
Files: 

Abstract

The presence of toxic heavy metal ions such as Cu2+, Cr6+, Hg2+, Cd2+, As3+, Pb2+ and As5+ constitutes a worldwide environmental problem in many countries. Even at trace level, many harmful effects on humans health and other life forms are associated to their nonbiodegradability, high toxicity and potential accumulation. Thus, the precise detection of these heavy metal at trace level in aqueous systems is a current challenge. Carbon quantum dots (Cdots) have been exhibiting suitable luminescence properties for designing heavy metal sensors based on analyte-induced fluorescence quenching, besides presenting a high biocompatibility, low cost and ease of synthesis. Herein, we studied the preparation of green-emitting Cdots via 3 fast, simple, economical and labour efficient methodologies: alkali-assisted (AAS), hydrothermal-assisted (HAS) and alkali-hydrothermal-assisted (AHAS) synthesis using an aqueous beetroot extract as the carbon source. Thus, the beetroot extract was prepared by blending 770 mg of beetroot (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris var. vulgaris) with 50 mL of Milli-Q water and then filtered. For the Cdots synthesis, it was applied a 23 factorial design (two-level design with 3 factors) to evaluate some experimental conditions, such as temperature (25, 90 or 180 °C), time under magnetically stirring or hydrothermal treatment (1, 3 or 5 h) and amount of a 5M NaOH solution (0, 0.5 or 1.0 mL). For all the experiments, 10 mL of the extract and a known volume of water/NaOH were used to keep the total volume equal to 11.0 mL. Then, all the samples were purified by dialyze for 72 h. After all the treatments, the beetroot extract changed its original purple color to dark yellow and samples presented a green emission when the samples are exposed to UV light, evidencing the formation of Cdots. The emission spectra for these particles are strongly affected by the excitation wavelength, permitting the emission in a large range of the visible spectrum. The origin of this property is generally attributed to the surface traps in the radiative transition of Cdots. FTIR spectra for these samples exhibited characteristic peaks of C-H, C=C, C-O and O-H vibrations. The morphology was analyzed by TEM, which showed Cdots with a nearly spherical shape and diameters bellow 5.0 nm. Among them, the sample which presented the most improved optical properties (emission) was the one prepared by a hydrothermal method at 180 °C for 5h. Thus, this sample was applied for the detection of Cu2+ and Hg2+ ions in aqueous media. The concentrations of these ions ranged from 3.5 mM to 25.0 mM. It was observed a progressive quenching of fluorescence when increasing the concentration of the Cu2+ and Hg2+ ions. The Stern-Volmer plots of these ions sensing suggest that only a single quenching pathway is predominant (either static or dynamic), with KSV = 1.83x104 M for Cu2+ and KSV = 2.66x104 M for Hg2+, showing a slightly selectivity to Cu2+ ions. Overall, these preliminary results indicate that the as-prepared Cdots are suitable to be used as simple, but effective, nanoprobes for heavy metal ion detection in aqueous media.

Theme:
3. Water security in a changing world
Abstract ID:
320
Submit by:
Sunghun Kim
Author(s):
Sunghun Kim | Hyunjun Ahn | Jinseok Jung | Jun-Haeng Heo |  
Country:
KOREA, REPUBLIC OF
Keyword(s):
Climate change, Frequency analysis, RCP scenario, Rainfall quantile
Files: 

Abstract

The latest report of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) provides an overview of scientific knowledges about climate change. Changes in rainfall intensity and patterns duto climate change is expected to have a major impact in the water resources system. Understanding and predicting the projected future impacts of climate change on hydrology will help to the decision-makers. According to many related studies of climate change are shown the negative result as increasing heavy rainfall and deepening drought. In fact, Korea has regionally experienced flood damage in 2016 after drought damages in 2014, 2015. In this study, rainfall quantiles were estimated using the raifnall data along the climate change scenario, then each results were compared and analyzed. Two diffrent methods of frequency analysis for rainfall quantile estimation, at-site frequency analysis and regional frequency analysis (index flood method) were employed. The Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenario were provided by research group on Climate Change Adaptation for Water Resources (CCAW). As the results, the regional frequency analysis have been validated as more appropriate method for rainfall quantile of climate change scenario. This provides proper rainfall quantile estimation techniques for the future climate scenarios to the practitioners of Korea. 

Theme:
5. Water ecosystems and physical regimes
Abstract ID:
317
Submit by:
Teresita de Jesús Mora Ortiz
Author(s):
Teresita de Jesus Mora Ortiz | Itza Mendoza-Sanchez | Francisco Olivera | Miguel Angel Vergara Sanchez | Rosanna Bonasia |  
Country:
MEXICO
Keyword(s):
wetland,hydrology,flows,watershed
Files: 

Abstract

 The coastal wetland named "Pantanos de Centla" is located in Tabasco, in the south of the Gulf of Mexico. It was declared a Biosphere Reserve by the Mexican goverment in 1992. It is a national priority area for conservation, among other coastal wetlands in Mexico, due to key ecosystem services it provides. Current management of the Reserve include monitoring of water levels, vegetation, wildlife and land use as well as impact assessment of conservation practices in the wetland area.

Hydrologically, the Biosphere Reserve is located on the delta of two rivers, Grijalva and Usumacinta. Pantanos de Centla provides key freshwater ecosystem services to the region, namely: flood control, natural filtration of pollutants, groundwater recharge and stabilization of the coastline. These ecosystem services may be affected by land use changes in the watershed of the Grijalva and Usumacinta rivers. The objective of the present work is to assess the hydrological response of Pantanos de Centla wetland due to land use change in the watershe area.

 In this study we defined a conceptual hydrological model for the Biosphere Reserve. The watershed area contributing to water inflows to the Biosphere was defined using data of elevation, land use and soil type, as well as hydraulic infrastructure that affects the natural flow of the river (i.e. dams). The model includes the following hydrological processes: surface water inflow from the watershed, precipitation, evapotranspiration, infiltration to the subsurface and surface water outflows. The hydrological model was solved using SWAT (Soil & Water Assessment Tool). Simulations results were calibrated using stream flow measurements obtained from automatic gage stations. Impacts of land use change on water inflows to the Biosphere Reserve were assessed by simulating a number of scenarios that involve variations in the hydrological processes included in the model.

Understanding the impact of land use change on freshwater inflows to Pantanos de Centla area is fundamental for assessing changes in key ecosystem services and planning more effective conservation practices in the wetland area.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Theme:
1. Water, sanitation and health
Abstract ID:
303
Submit by:
Juliana Pinheiro Gomes
Author(s):
Juliana Pinheiro Gomes | Miguel de Freitas Sartori |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
sharing water, allocation practices, sharing the benefits
Files: 

Abstract

The water-scarcity scenario in Brasilia, capital of Brazil, called for much improved and efficient water allocation practices in the Descoberto Basin. This basin encompasses the Descoberto Lake, located in Brazlândia. With an area of 17 km2 and a storage capacity of 120 million m3, this reservoir is responsible for supplying 60% of the population of Brasilia. The city of Brazlândia, with approximately 54,000 inhabitants, stands out as the largest horticultural producer’s area in the Federal District. The negotiated water allocation practices aimed to mitigate the existing water use conflicts between the irrigation practices and the Public Water Supply (PWS) of Brazlândia. The study population consisted of 45 customers with properties near the following streams: Capão da Onça; Bucanhão and Barrocão. These brooks are part of the Descoberto Basin and are responsible for Brazlândia’s PWS. Historically, this is a region of water shortages in the dry season. The shared use of water resources established initiatives for participatory management of water resources in this critical area of the Descoberto Basin. The number and conflict parameters over water use were determined with the participation of customers and the Regulatory Agency for Water, Energy and Sanitation of the Federal District (ADASA).The negotiated water allocation execution was held by the survey of users granted and not granted; a campaign for the registration of new users; the establishment of a negotiated allocation committee; the development of diagnosis and prognosis of water availability; the development of negotiated allocation proposals, linked to the multiple uses of water security; the discussion of the proposed allocation between ADASA and users; and the preparation of the negotiated allocation term.The actions and proposals for shared use were developed through discussions and negotiations between water customers and ADASA; decentralizing the decision process and empowering social participation in water management. This study made it possible to know the water use resources in the Descoberto Basin’s passage and to define strategies to ensure its multiple uses. Remarkably, the participatory water allocation ensured the flow of 80 liters per second at capture point of the PWS dealership and the continued practice of irrigation by farmers in the region in the year 2016. In other words, the implemented practices allowed multiple uses of water resources even in advanced water scarcity, when the priority use is for human supply. Notably, the acquired knowledge from this work can be used in other parts of the Descoberto Basin in periods of drought, in order to increase the water availability of the Descoberto Lake tributaries.
Theme:
3. Water security in a changing world
Abstract ID:
301
Submit by:
Yongnan ZHU
Author(s):
Yongnan Zhu | Yong Zhao | Haihong Li | Lizhen Wang | Lei Li | Jiaqi Zhai |  
Country:
CHINA
Keyword(s):
Water resources, Energy security, Climate change, Coupled land surface-hydrology model, Shanxi energy bases
Files: 

Abstract

The water and energy security issue is a big challenge and problem for sustainable development in China. In this study, we take the largest coal energy producing region in China as the research area, to analyze the impacts of future climatic changes and human activity on water resources in Shanxi's energy base (main energy producing region) has been investigated base on the Coupled Land surface and Hydrology Model System (CLHMS) using three different IPCC AR5 emission scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Comparing with the current national policy, the supporting capacity of water resources in mid-21st Century on the energy bases development was discussed. It's showed that Shanxi's energy bases water demand will continue to grow, the competitiveness of the development and utilization of water resources in the area will be further intensified. This research also proved the basis for the development scale of energy bases in the future.

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
293
Submit by:
Carlos Alexandre Borges Garcia
Author(s):
Carlos Alexandre Borges Garcia | Anamália Ferreira da Silva | Maria Caroline Silva Mendonça | Helenice Leite Garcia | Ana Carla Santos Andrade | Silvânio Silvério Lopes da Costa | Robson Dantas Viana | Rennan Geovanny Oliveira Araújo |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
Water quality, public dam, quality index
Files: 

Abstract

In the semiarid region of Brazil, the construction of water reservoirs has the human supply as the main purpose. By climatic and management factors, the population of this region faces serious problems with the water deficit. Still, the lack of sanitation affects the quality of the water of this spring, which are launched domestic effluents daily.
The reservoir under study is located in the city of Nossa Senhora das Dores in the state of Sergipe. It belongs to the sub-basin of Rio Siriri, integrating the list of municipalities in the semiarid region of Brazil. According to the Atlas of Sanitation 2011, the city of Nossa Senhora das Dores does not have sewer collectors.
The collection period was the period from February 2014 to January 2016, considering the dry and rainy seasons in the region.
The methodology for the analysis of parameters was established according to Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, American Public Health Association (1998). Data were worked by descriptive statistics methods in Excel ™ spreadsheet.
The average dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 6.9 to 8.4 mg L-1 in the dry period, and 4.8 to 8.3 mg L-1 in the rainy season. According to CONAMA Resolution No. 357/2005, these sections would be framed as Class 3.
In the analysis of the total phosphorus, dry and rainy season, showed the following average values 0.1031 and 0.054 mg L-1, respectively. However, these values are above limit 0,025 mg L-1 established by CONAMA Resolution No. 357/2005, for watercourses in condition Class 3. There is a high average value of Chlorophyll a 77,81μg.L-1 for the dry season, and 127.08 μg.L-1 for the rainy, exceeding the limit set by CONAMA Resolution No. 357/2005, Chlorophyll a equals to 60 μg.L-1.
According to the Nitrogen results in the form of Nitrate and Nitrite is worth mentioning the maximum values of these parameters. In the dry period, the nitrate showed maximum concentration of 11.11 mg L-1, getting above the limit of 10 mg L-1, defined by CONAMA Resolution No. 357/2005. For nitrite, the maximum value was <0.002 mg L-1.
The recent pollution is characterized by the presence of nitrogen in its ammonium form. In the analysis performed, the variations found in the dry period were 1.522 to 0.406 mg L-1 for the rainy season, the variations remained constant with maximum and minimum values of 0.839 mg L-1, both values within the limits established by CONAMA Resolution No. 357/05, for freshwaters Class 2.
The maximum values of turbidity were 204.15 and 150.81 NTU for the dry and rainy season, respectively. For Total Dissolved Solids, the figures showed no disagreement with the law during the monitored period. The Ministry of Health Ordinance No. 518/04 determines a concentration up to 500 mg L-1 SDT as the standard of potability of water intended for human consumption.
The monitoring of water quality in time and space, allows the implementation of management tools for the conservation of this wealth, prioritizing aquatic life and health of its surrounding population.
Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
292
Submit by:
Carlos Alexandre Borges Garcia
Author(s):
Carlos Alexandre Borges Garcia | Helenice Leite Garcia | Maria Caroline Silva Mendona | Anamália Ferreira da Silva | José do Patrocínio Hora Alves | Silvânio Silvério Lopes da Costa | Rennan Geovanny Oliveira Araújo | Igor Santos Silva |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
Water quality, PCA, Açude da Macela
Files: 

Abstract

The quality of surface water is a very sensitive issue and it is a great environmental concern worldwide. In recent years, there has been an increase in awareness and concern about water pollution across the globe. Thus, new approaches towards achieving sustainable water resources management have been developed internationally. A variety of water quality indices have been designed to judge out the overall water quality within a particular area promptly and efficiently. As the indicator has the function to simplify, other techniques have been applied to identify some informative content which may influence the safe management of water resources.

In present study multivariate statistical approaches are used; interpretation of large and complex data matrix obtained during a monitoring of the Açude da Macela, which is located in Itabaiana, Sergipe, Brazil and used for human consumption and irrigation of vegetables.

Samplings were done on selected sites for two years (2010–2012) across in the reservoir width with a view to monitor changes caused by anthropogenic sources. Sampling, preservation and transportation of the samples to the laboratory were done in concordance with standard methods. Eleven physicochemical and bacteriological variables have been analyzed in water samples collected two years where river is affected by man made and seasonal influences. The dataset was treated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on the R Project for Statistical Computing to extract the parameters that are most important in assessing variation in water quality in order to modify the IQAR index. The parameters of water quality were compared with the limits established by CONAMA’s Resolution nº. 357/2005 and the quality of its water were determined according to three indexes, commonly used - IAQR (IAP), O-WQI, PW-WQI– and the new proposed index, in order to minimize subjectivity and improve the credibility of the final evaluation. Five Principal Factor were identified as responsible for the data structure explaining 72% of the total variance of the dataset, in which nutrient factor (25.57%), dissolved pollutants and salinity (13.59%), physicochemical sources of variability (12.35%), waste water pollution from industrial and organic load (10.60%) and sewage and feacal contamination (10.04%) that represents total variance of water quality in the Açude da Macela. The results for the IQAR (IAP), O-WQI, PW-WQI and IQAR-m indexes allowed classify this reservoir, respectively, as extremely polluted, very bad, very bad and very polluted. The analysis of variables showed that the Açude’s water quality was found with high concentrations of ammonia-N and total phosphorus, like the anthropogenic activities, resulting from dumping of domestic, industrial and agricultural effluents, possibly, the main and most significant sources of pollution. The present study suggests that PCA techniques are useful tools for identification of important surface water quality parameters, showing that it is necessary to adopt measures for the control and reduction of nutrients and organic loads in the water to contain the eutrophication process of this reservoir. In this context, it is essential to monitor the physical, chemical and biological parameters in order to assess the impact of human action on this water resource.

Theme:
3. Water security in a changing world
Abstract ID:
287
Submit by:
Laura Elisa Garza Diaz
Author(s):
Laura E. Garza-Díaz | Alyssa Devincentis | Samuel Sandoval-Solis | Mohammad Azizi |  
Country:
UNITED STATES
Keyword(s):
water management, optimization model, groundwater, agriculture, sustainability
Files: 

Abstract

Water uncertainty is a growing problem for California farms as agricultural industrialization, population growth, and climate change affect water resources. The highly manipulated hydrologic regime in this state has depleted water resources and led to the use of various adaptive management strategies to address resource management concerns based on social and environmental conditions. The historic imbalance between water pumping and replenishment in Pajaro Valley (PV) has led to overdrafted aquifers, seawater intrusion, and salinization. The objective of this study is to estimate the carrying capacity of agricultural land in PV while preventing groundwater overdraft and seawater intrusion. A simulation model was built and calibrated using historic data to represent current and future hydrology and water management strategies. An optimization model was build to determine the sustainable carrying capacity of agricultural land that maximizes the economic profit. Model constraints include total land and water availability, crop acreage and water use, and historic demand. In PV, agricultural operations must use less water more efficiently, which may mean changes in crop types, size of operations, and fallowing land in parts of the basin. Results f the optimal scenario over 25 years show a 15% reduction of total agricultural acreage, 8.5% reduction in food production, average profit loss of 4%, and a 79% reduction in aquifer depletion. This case study shows that water conservation practices are key strategies for addressing sustainable groundwater management in California.

Theme:
5. Water ecosystems and physical regimes
Abstract ID:
279
Submit by:
Melih Calamak
Author(s):
Melih Calamak | Gizem Bilgin | Halit Demirkapu | Asli Kobal |  
Country:
TURKEY
Keyword(s):
Earth-fill dams, rodent animals, burrows, seepage, phreatic surface
Files: 

Abstract

Earthen dams are made of natural soils and they are natural habitats for rodent animals. These type of dams may be burrowed by rodents from the soil surface or below the water surface. The dig tunnels and holes can extend into the dam body up to couple of meters. This can affect the integrity, stability and the performance of the structure. Large cavities can cause preferential flow paths and increased seepage rates through the body which may result in piping. Besides, cavities may collapse after a heavy rain or snow melt which may result in settlements or decreased slope stabilities. This study investigates how seepage behavior of earthen dams are affected by animal burrows. To this end, a typical earthen dam is analyzed using a finite element software for the seepage passing through its body with and without burrows. The dig tunnels of various rodents, such as muskrat, beaver, gopher, badger, etc. are considered since their burrow shapes and locations are different in the dam body. The changes in the seepage rate, phreatic surface and pore water pressures are investigated for different types of animals. The findings of the study showed that the animal burrows in embankments have considerable effects on the profile of the phreatic surface and the pore water pressures. 

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
253
Submit by:
ABDELAZIZ GHERROU
Author(s):
ABDELAZIZ GHERROU
Country:
CANADA
Keyword(s):
Chromium, wastewater, electroplating
Files: 

Abstract

Chromium is a metal used in a variety of industries such as tanneries, metallurgy, and metal electroplating. Wastewaters, specially rinsing waters, coming from these industries contains high concentrations of Cr(VI), the most toxic state of chromium. Chemical reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) followed by chemical precipitation, ion exchange, adsorption, membrane filtration, are the main techniques used for treating such wastewaters. However, these processes are complex, expensive and generate hazardous wastes to be disposed off often in landfills. We have developped a new approach for chromium recovery using a filter filled with recycled iron and cellulose fibers. Laboratory and pilot scale tests demonstrated that we can reduce Cr(VI) concentrations from 10-50 ppm to as low as 20 ppb. pH and contact time (flow rate) were the two main parameters governing the process. It has been demonstated that upon the fibers were in contact with the wastewater, pH increases from 2-3 to as high as 8. Hence, under these pH conditions, Cr(III) ions generated by the reduction reaction between Fe and Cr(VI), precipitates as chromium hydroxide. Since, the mixture of cellulose and iron fibers are compacted in such a way to have a controlled porosity, the chromium hydroxide fine particles are retained inside the filter. Laboratory and pilot scale tests were very satisfactory and the technology is now ready for commercialization. This new technology was patented.

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
246
Submit by:
Angélica Vieira
Author(s):
Isabela Reck | Rebecca Paixão | Raquel Gomes | Rosângela Bergamasco | Marcelo Vieira | Angélica Vieira |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
wastewater, adsorption, tartrazine, babassu coconut
Files: 

Abstract

With the industry advance, both foods and beverages, the use of synthetic dyes diffuses between different products. Most colorants have complex aromatic molecular structure and functional azo groups (-N = N-) that make them resistant to light, temperature and oxidants. With this feature, the dye does not degrade easily and it can accumulate in aquatic ecosystems. Colored wastewater is unacceptable aesthetically and cause damage to the environment by changing the pH and color and thus influencing the photosynthetic activity of the aquatic ecosystem, chemical oxygen demand and among other problems. Due to toxicity of these dyes, it is extremely important to monitor then so they do not exceed the levels allowed by the current body. In this context, the study in question aimed to remove the yellow dye tartrazine from aqueous solutions using activated carbon of babassu coconut. The adsorption was conducted batchwise, using mechanical shaker, with a dye solution of 15 mg L-1 and 0.2 g of activated carbon. The influences of differents parameters were tested: the contact time, pH, temperature and amount of adsorbent. After 24 hours of contact between activated carbon of babassu coconut and the tartrazine yellow dye it was observed that the solution got in equilibrium at a time of 12 hours (720 min), achieving removal capacity of 3.66 mg g-1. Thus, the next experiments were performed at this time. It was found that the best pH for the dye removal was 3. This result can be explained by the fact that tartrazine is an anionic character molecule, and therefore are attracted by H+ ions present in the solution. The best temperature found for the removal of the dye was 45° C, which characterizes the adsorption with activated carbon of babassu coconut as an endothermic process. It is noted that the amount of tartrazine adsorbed by the adsorbent decreases from 3.66 to 0.50 mg g-1 by increasing the adsorbent mass of 0.2 to 1.5 g. A probable explanation is based on the fact that this adsorbent has a high potential for removing the dye in question, and would only be necessary to use a larger mass at higher concentrations of tartrazine, while for the tested concentration of 0.2 grams promote a good removal. As a conclusion of this study, it can be stated that activated carbon of babassu coconut have a very significant potential in removing pollutants from aqueous solutions. Therefore, the adsorption is a process that can be considered as a preliminary water treatment from food industries so dyes can be removed before being discharged together with the aqueous effluents of industries.With the industry advance, both foods and beverages, the use of synthetic dyes diffuses between different products. Most colorants have complex aromatic molecular structure and functional azo groups (-N = N-) that make them resistant to light, temperature and oxidants. With this feature, the dye does not degrade easily and it can accumulate in aquatic ecosystems. Colored wastewater is unacceptable aesthetically and cause damage to the environment by changing the pH and color and thus influencing the photosynthetic activity of the aquatic ecosystem, chemical oxygen demand and among other problems. Due to toxicity of these dyes, it is extremely important to monitor then so they do not exceed the levels allowed by the current body. In this context, the study in question aimed to remove the yellow dye tartrazine from aqueous solutions using activated carbon of babassu coconut. The adsorption was conducted batchwise, using mechanical shaker, with a dye solution of 15 mg L-1 and 0.2 g of activated carbon. The influences of differents parameters were tested: the contact time, pH, temperature and amount of adsorbent. After 24 hours of contact between activated carbon of babassu coconut and the tartrazine yellow dye it was observed that the solution got in equilibrium at a time of 12 hours (720 min), achieving removal capacity of 3.66 mg g-1. Thus, the next experiments were performed at this time. It was found that the best pH for the dye removal was 3. This result can be explained by the fact that tartrazine is an anionic character molecule, and therefore are attracted by H+ ions present in the solution. The best temperature found for the removal of the dye was 45° C, which characterizes the adsorption with activated carbon of babassu coconut as an endothermic process. It is noted that the amount of tartrazine adsorbed by the adsorbent decreases from 3.66 to 0.50 mg g-1 by increasing the adsorbent mass of 0.2 to 1.5 g. A probable explanation is based on the fact that this adsorbent has a high potential for removing the dye in question, and would only be necessary to use a larger mass at higher concentrations of tartrazine, while for the tested concentration of 0.2 grams promote a good removal. As a conclusion of this study, it can be stated that activated carbon of babassu coconut have a very significant potential in removing pollutants from aqueous solutions. Therefore, the adsorption is a process that can be considered as a preliminary water treatment from food industries so dyes can be removed before being discharged together with the aqueous effluents of industries.

Theme:
A. Bridging science and policy
Abstract ID:
242
Submit by:
Joohyeon Lee
Author(s):
Tae_Woong Kim | Ho-Won Jang | Seo-Yeon Park |  
Country:
KOREA, REPUBLIC OF
Keyword(s):
Agricultural drought, MODIS, Vegetation, LST, TRMM
Files: 

Abstract

Recent climate changes due to global warming caused extreme climate events such as mega drought and extreme flood. Among these extreme events, drought is usually occurred over a long-duration unlike other hydrologic disasters, and its damaged area is quite extensive compared to other natural disasters. Besides, as the prediction results of various climate forecasting models, give a prospect that drought disaster could be more serious in the future.

 Therefore, a strategy that can efficiently monitor and forecast such droughts is needed. Remote sensing based drought monitoring methods provides efficient means to measure soil moisture and vegetation health conditions for drought characterization and operational system over large areas continuously across the space and time. Development of an effective drought monitoring technology using satellite image data having a high applicability as means of supplementing limitations of conventional ground data based  drought indices is ultimately demanded.

The main objective of this study is to develop an integrated drought index based on the NDVI, LST from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, and precipitation data from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite for spatio-temporal monitoring of the drought with satellite image data. Among the various types of satellite image data from MODIS, NDVI from MOD13 image that can be monitor the vitality of the vegetation was used. While, LST of MOD11 images was utilized for evaluating the land surface temperature. Each variable was standardized from 0 to 1 to discriminate the effect of drought from normal conditions, and then combined with the selected weights.

The VHI that was composite product by combining VCI and TCI as well as the SDCI estimated by combining VCI, TCI, and PCI were calculated for the representative drought year 2001. Further, the applicability of the satellite data-based drought monitoring was evaluated through spatio-temporal analysis with 6-month Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). VHI and SDCI drought map for historical drought year is compared with agricultural, hydrological impact, and surveyed data for the damaged areas.   

For VHI and SDCI estimated in this study, due to lack of surveyed data for the agricultural damages, verification of the spatio-temporal drought evaluation was performed with a limited scope. Still, the VHI and SDCI were found to be highly efficient in their applicability as agricultural drought indices, enabling themselves to be used in the drought monitoring and forecasting in the future. In addition, these indices could be utilized as basic data for setting up a practical action and adaptive strategy for the agricultural damages by drought.

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
234
Submit by:
Micael de Souza Fraga
Author(s):
Micael de Souza Fraga | Hugo Alexandre Soares Guedes | Demetrius David da Silva | Alisson Carraro Borges | Michel Castro Moreira | Guilherme Barbosa Reis |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
Modeling; Water pollution; Water quality
Files: 

Abstract

The pollution of water bodies is a worldwide problem, and its control is one of the large challenges faced by the water resource management. As the self-purification capacity may vary from one water body to another, become necessary specific studies that aim to know the amount of waste that each river is able to receive without their natural characteristics are impaired. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the self-purification capacity of the Piracicaba river, Minas Gerais State, using mathematical water quality models to assist in the decision making of the water resource management and planning. The modified Streeter-Phelps model and the QUAL-UFMG model were used for the self-purification study of the Piracicaba river on two distinct periods (dry and rainy). Water quality data for the following variables were considered for the study: dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). These variables were utilized in the calibration and validation of the models, with the data been taken from the “Projeto Águas de Minas” (Waters of Minas Project) water quality monitoring campaigns driven by the “Instituto Mineiro de Gestão das Águas” (Water Resource Management Institute in MG). According to the calibration processes for DO and BOD, both models represented the qualitative information observed in the monitored sections of Piracicaba river. For the variable total phosphorus, QUAL-UFMG model did not achieve satisfactory results for the conditions under which the study was conducted. The water quality in the João Monlevade municipality section during dry periods didn't meet the Piracicaba River's standards, with BOD values higher than permitted by the legislation for the Class II fresh water, after receiving the municipality’s effluents, demonstrating the need for preventive measures to improve the water quality. The other variables presented no violation of parameters set by the legislation on both the dry and the rainy periods.

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
231
Submit by:
Rosangela Bergamasco
Author(s):
Rosangela Bergamasco | Priscila F Coldebella | Franciele Camacho | Driano Rezende | Leticia Nishi | Marcia R F Klen | Angelica M S Vieira | Marcelo F Vieira | carlos Tavares | Maria T Amorim |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
nanoparticle, degradation of Methylene Blue, polyethersulfone ultramembrane
Files: 

Abstract

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) in different forms such as films, fibers or particles has been the focus of numerous investigations in recent years, because of its photocatalytic effects that decompose organic chemicals, and shows good hydrophilic properties in surface of membranes.  Combined with these characteristics, in this study, Polyethersulfone (PES) ultramembrane was self-assembled with TiO2 nanoparticles for the purpose of photocatalytic degradation capability of Methylene Blue (MB) dye and fouling reduction. The PES membrane with an diameter of 47 mm was dipped in the colloidal solution of 0,5% (w/v) TiO2 powder (Degussa–Hüls, P-25) for 1:30 h at 5 bar pressure to deposit TiO2 nanoparticles on the membrane surface and then washed with water. The membrane was prepared using a filtration module HP4750 StirredCell (Sterlitech ©). To evaluate the changing surface properties, the membrane before and after modification was characterized by analysis water permeability, contact angle, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic performance of the processed samples was measured by following the degradation capability of 1.10−6 mol.L-1 MB dye solution irradiated with a high power LED source (Thorlabs, 700 mA) with an excitation peak at 365 nm (UV-A). Results showed that the TiO2 self-assembled in PES membrane demonstrated a remarkable photocatalytic activity with over 80% MB removed from the solution after 100 min of UV radiation. The SEM photographs showed TiO2 aggregates on the top surface of the modified membranes. The lower the contact angle means higher hydrophilicity of the membrane surface, however the water permeability experiments showed a decrease flow from 19.53 to 10.47 L.h-1.m-2.bar-1. The reduced flow could be due TiO2 nanoparticles have entered the pores on the membrane surface. With the results, the applied method for TiO2 deposition was suitable for membrane morphology modification. The TiO2 photocatalytic properties in the MB dye degradation may indicate promising mitigation to the fouling effects of PES membrane.

Theme:
1. Water, sanitation and health
Abstract ID:
230
Submit by:
Rosangela Bergamasco
Author(s):
Livia Oliveira Ruiz Moreti | Daniel Mantovani | Marcelo F Vieira | Angélica M S Vieira | Laiza B Beltran | Giovana Telles | Fatima J Bassetti | Raquel G Gomes | Alvaro Alberto Araujo | Rosangela Bergamasco |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
drinking water, natural coagulant, removal of microalgae
Files: 

Abstract

The presence of microalgae in drinking water supply can cause significant disturbances. The process water clarification (coagulation/flocculation/dissolved air flotation, C/F/DAF) are used due to good efficiency for removal this contaminant. As a future strategy, the application of natural coagulants to water treatment emerges as a promising ecologically and socially sustainable option. Thus, the aim of this work is the application of the C/F/FAD process with Moringa oleifera seeds to removal Microcystis aeruginosa from water. For the tests it was used a synthetic water by deionized water with M. aeruginosa inoculum in cultive medium ASM-1. C/F/DAF tests it was used the "flotest" equipment. It was verified the efficiency of two types of coagulants based on M. oleifera seeds: full powder and defatted powder with ethanol. The results shown that M. oleifera defatted seeds were better to removal chlorophyll-a (91%), color (72%), turbidity (77%) and UV254nm (45%) from water than M. oleifera full powder seeds that shown removal from cholophyll-a, color, turbidity and UV254nm about 82%, 60%, 64%, 28%, respectively. It was observed that residual values of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were increased in the water treated for the both coagulants based M. oleifera, being the defatted seeds shown lightly larger (14,5 mg.L-1) than the full seeds (12,4 mg.L-1).

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
229
Submit by:
Rosangela Bergamasco
Author(s):
Tássia R.T.Santos | Murilo B.Andrade | Angelica M.S. Vieira | Marcelo F.Vieira | Safia Hamoudi | Rosangela Bergamasco |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
pesticide removal, graphene, water quality
Files: 

Abstract

Agricultural activity has increased the use of pesticides, which contribute to the increase of environmental contamination. Therefore, the presence of high concentrations of pesticides has become commonplace in many parts of the world. The biggest concern in this regard is the infiltration of pesticide effluents into waterways and aquifers the pesticide contamination is a cumulative and persistent deterioration and threat the survival of the aquatic environment, flora, fauna and environmental matrix (water and soil). In addition, the exposure to these products brings several injuries to human health. Thus, studies of new technologies to remove these contaminants have been intensified worldwide. Currently, the application of the adsorption process is widely studied and has shown good results. Different adsorbents have been tested in an attempt to obtain an increasingly efficient system. A material that has been occupying a prominent position due to its promising applications is graphene. Its excellent chemical, mechanical, optical and electronic properties has attracted great interest to search for their potential applications. Graphene associated with nanomaterials can be an innovative proposal to improve the performance of sorbent activity, due to the known role of nanotechnology in improving treatment methods for obtaining drinking water. A recognized material obtained at the nanoscale, with potential application for adsorption/degradation of pollutants is iron oxide, these nanoparticles can be achieved in various ways, but modified sol-gel method allows obtaining particles with average size of 15 nm using only water as a solvent, thus being a very interesting method for the synthesis of magnetic materials. The objective of this study is to use the combination of graphene's properties with the potential of iron oxide nanoparticle to enhance the efficiency of the adsorption process and to facilitate the separation of unwanted materials through magnetic field.  The tests were conducted in batch mode, and the residual pesticide concentration was measured by ion chromatography using an ICS 2500 from Dionex, equipped with an Ion-Pac AS18 (4 x 250 mm) column, and an electrochemical detector an online eluent generator. The pesticide removal  observed was 90% , using adsorption on graphene and magnetic nanoparticle, constituting an excellent alternative to be a high efficiency sorbent material for use in the pesticide sorption.

Theme:
1. Water, sanitation and health
Abstract ID:
228
Submit by:
Muhammad Aslam Khan
Author(s):
Muhammad Aslam Khan
Country:
PAKISTAN
Keyword(s):
Barrier; Socioeconomic status; Water associated disease
Files: 

Abstract

This study was conducted in 2014 to investigate the possible challenges in the way to develop a sustainable water/WASH development and their concrete influence on the human life and its social environment as a whole. Five districts of Punjab province were selected as a universe of this study named Lahore, Gujranwala, Faisalabad, Multan & Rawalpindi where the Water & Sanitation Agencies (WASAs) had existed and in operational forms. Primary data was collected using structured interview schedule, focus group discussion and personal observation tolls. About 1500 household were selected as a representative sample & targeted population using simple random sampling technique. Total 300 household were conducted interview from each district in which 100 were senior male, 100 senior female and 100 were young (included 50% young boys & girls). Almost 300 focus group discussion conducted in which 60 from each district with 50% male & female ratio whereas personal observation was carried out throughout the field work and evidence taken into account. Secondary data was also collected from the concerning institutions, record, reports and publication materials.

Result indicated that there are a series of barrier which are playing a challenging role in the way to develop the sustainable WASH development in the Pakistan. The much critical challenges are lack of institutional capacity, financial constraints, political instability and lack of well, poor water utilization behaviour of local citizens, lack of proper education, lack of technical manpower, high level of illiteracy, war & terror and natural disaster. It was also interpreted that the mismanagement in the water resource utilization leading to the devastating floods and other natural disaster which are not more natural but a manmade.

Data demonstrated that there are very little availability and practice to treat waste water in all its form before indulging it into other natural water bodies which put sever negative effects on the soil, marine and human life. In addition this unethical behaviour also play important role in the ground water contamination, spreading the disease and devaluation of the socio-eco system of the nature. About 78% data showed that there is a high level of disease in the Pakistan which is directly associated to poor drinking water and sanitation. About 81% data indicated that people have to spend about 39% of their income for treatment the disease related to the poor WASH facilities even majority of population included youth are facing the curse of unemployment in the state.This study suggested political and parliamentarian should join hands with local communities to develop the public oriented flexible policies for political stability and developing concrete visionary roadmap for the WASH development in Pakistan. A sufficient budget should be allocated in all the annual development plan of Pakistan for the Water sector. Educational institutions, youth and media should be engaged for the research, social mobilization, behaviour change; highlighting the issues in water sector and develop fact base policies with gender mainstreaming and inclusion & submerging of social, cultural and behaviour change from the local citizen to high level institutional officials. It also provide a way forward that a better & adequate water management system should be developed in the term of Water Dam/ Basin to collect the rain water and other source and then use it for the production of thermoelectricity to combat with energy crisis and floods which are very alarming matters for the Pakistan in the current situation .

Theme:
5. Water ecosystems and physical regimes
Abstract ID:
215
Submit by:
Gonzalo Daniel Mejia Santana
Author(s):
Ing. Gonzalo Daniel Mejia Santana | Dra. Maritza Liliana Arganis Juárez | M.I. Eliseo Carrizosa Elizondo | Ing. José Carlos Ramírez García | Jacquelinne Mariles Gutiérrez | M.I. Margarita Preciado Jiménez | M.I. Nikte Ocampo Guerrero | Dra. Jeannette del Carmen Zambrano Nájera |  
Country:
MEXICO
Keyword(s):
climatological variables; models; climate change scenarios; precipitation and air temperature, genetic programming.
Files: 

Abstract

The study of how climatological variables had been or will change over time under emissions of greenhouse gases, has been the subject of several researches since the late nineteenth century and they  have increased since the eighties of the XXI Century .

The population growth in the medium and short term mean a greater urbanization with the consequent change in land use in a country; civil protection measures to be implemented will be essential to alert and protect future populations to the occurrence of extraordinary weather events, providing necessary measures in cases such as heatwaves, frosts and floods. In different countries there are  units responsible for warning the populations in these cases. In particular knowledge of the behavior of precipitation historically occurred on a site and its forecasting in the long  term from variables with relative simplicity of measurement (such as the temperature) is of utmost importance to be able to take action preventive. Rainfall forecast with different climate change scenarios are useful for obtaining new forecasting models that include the history and a first predicted approximation of new series with longer than the historical record length.

The problem of obtaining equations that allow not only reproduce the history of an event, but also to predict the behavior in the near future, will give decision makers in civil protection time for decision-making on prevention and mitigation of damage to a meteorological phenomenon such as precipitation.

Considering new data from presumably climate change scenarios brings to research a new component with respect to existing forecast models. Having the experience and contribution of employees of national and international institutions adds relevance to the investigation.

Ten weather stations with daily records of precipitation and air temperature were selected; on such sites climate change models were applied using the system SEDEPECC the Mexican Institute of Water Technology, with horizons of 50,100,1000,5000 and 10000 years, obtaining forecasts of precipitation and temperature. Monthly behavior patterns of precipitation depending on the temperature-year in the historically recorded values were identified. These models were used to predict precipitation that was compared against that historically  recorded  for a length m. These models were fitted to a dissection method both vertical and horizontal, finding a higher correlation with  the horizontal dissection method.

 

Theme:
4. Water policy and governance
Abstract ID:
209
Submit by:
Daniela Bitencourt
Author(s):
Daniela Bitencourt | Maria José Soares | Ana Rocha Santos |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
Sustainability. Consumption. Access .
Files: 

Abstract

In the last decades, the scarcity of fresh water has become an obvious concern to society; becoming a threat to the sustainable development of human society. So the issues are debated in the global context, and increasingly there are expected emerging actions by public officials on ways to use and reuse of water.

In this perspective, the study aimed to calculate the sustainability index in consumption and access of fresh water in the municipalities Sergipe / Brazil. This approach requires protection demonstrate the balance between the physical environment and its resources, and use these resources to allow the planet continue to support an acceptable quality of life.

 For methodology was adapted the calculation for construction of sustainability indexes, and was based on studies of Martins, et al. (2008); Waquil, et al. (2007); Sepulveda (2005) were focused verify the development dynamics in a multidimensional perspective adjusting the variable values between 0 (zero) and 1 (one) to turn into indexes and presenting a positive or negative relationship.

Nonetheless, the variable is seen as positive when it contributes to the dynamics of recovery and use correctly the water, while the negative is used when the variable has aspects that do not value the dynamics of use and consumption of water in a balanced and sustainable way, rather within the standards determined by the UN (the United Nations).

However, what is related to the development of standards has been placed on the scale represented by colors according to the setting of local sustainability. The closer to 1 the value of the index, the greater sustainability. Thus, the identification of the status of each dimension worked in Sergipe municipalities are based on the study: critical, alert, acceptable and ideal.

Thus, we used the comparative method crossing the data obtained by calculating the development index among the municipalities in Sergipe and their points of funneling between variables by crossing the same as those derived from the information found: the IBGE; the NHIS; DATASUS; in FEINBRA; UNDP and other public domain websites on the situation of each municipality.

So knowing the dynamics of consumption and water access in all municipalities and the discrepancy between them, seeks to contribute to the direct action of the manager after the reality diagnosis and ability to make decisions throughout the process through shared management, supported the principles of social responsibility and the promotion of municipal sustainability.

 

Theme:
3. Water security in a changing world
Abstract ID:
207
Submit by:
xinfeng zhang
Author(s):
xinfeng zhang | Desheng yang | ran jiang |  
Country:
CHINA
Keyword(s):
Salty Tide Intrusion; Pearl River Estuary; Pearl River Delta; Water Resources;Sustainable Use;Mechanism
Files: 

Abstract

Pearl River Delta is often intruded by strong salty tide and the safe drinking water of residents is continuously threatened in recent years, so Pearl River Water Resources Commission of Ministry of Water Resources transfers fresh water to resist salty water for many times since the year 2005. According to the characteristics of salty tide activity in recent several years, such as more active movement, longer duration, wider upstream scope, more serious intensity, etc, the paper analyzes the mechanism of salty tide intrusion in Pearl River Estuary from such perspectives as the change of upland water, the change of river channel topography, the change of sea level, wind power, wind direction, etc. On the basis of the research on salty tide in recent years, the paper puts forward the methods to defend salty tide intrusion from such perspectives as the safety of water supply, the sustainable use of water resources, etc, for ensuring the sustainable development of water resources.

Theme:
3. Water security in a changing world
Abstract ID:
185
Submit by:
amrisha pandey
Author(s):
amrisha pandey
Country:
UNITED KINGDOM
Keyword(s):
freshwater management, data-science, international law, sustainable use, interdisciplinary approach.
Files: 

Abstract

Freshwater crisis is evident and growing with time, it has become one of the biggest security threat and a key factor for determining the fate of our planet. Freshwater is vital and unsubstitutable need to support life and civilisations across the globe. Therefore, this paper is designed to address the freshwater crisis of 21st century by inter-disciplinary use of science, technology and law using doctrinal research methodology and real life aspirations of data-science.  However, what is turning to be the security threat or the growing cause of war in time yet to come, does possess the potential to spread peace and harmony through co-operation by amalgamating the scientific advancement with the development of law and policy for the regulation of freshwater resource.

The surface and ground water constitute the same hydrological cycle and the transoundary impact on one part of the resource is bound to affect another. Moreover, for the holistic management of the freshwater resource it is important to take into account all the factors responsible. They vary broadly to the range of components such as: nature of the resource, geography, culture and pattern of human-use and the other socio-political as well as socio-economic reasons However, by the use of data-science what seems to be impossible till last decade has become possible today. By using this technology, the exact composition and type of the impurities, their impact on ecology, the residue leftover of the impurities reaching groundwater after percolating through several layer of earth surface and the holistic situation of the surface water including the internal aquatic life could be reasonably understood and known to plan ahead their management.  

Henceforth, this article proposes the use of data-science to collect the exact information about the exact location of the resource on multiple variables and imply the wise-use of this data in planning local polices for governing the resource. Additionally, to make sure that the policy so implemented in a locality is socially and legally acceptable and economically viable, they should be governed through certain basic principles of international environmental law which could develop them into the universally acceptable model. This scientific-legal fusion guided by set of universal principle of law possess the capacity to address the 21st century freshwater crisis. Furthermore, the date-science is important because we are running out of time and money to fix the burning issue and we are no longer at liberty to use the trial and error techniques as we have been doing from last 6-8 decades. Therefore, data-science will help create perfectly viable solutions on ground at local level of governance and the sustainable green technological advancement will primarily aim to assist in enhancing the nature’s capacity to replenish itself and secondly it will target to deal with the residue leftover through man-made techniques. Moreover, this paper will summarise the finding of inter-disciplinary nature and would argue such implementation from eco-centric view point in favour of overall environmental health of the planet by addressing its life-blood- the Freshwater.   

Theme:
3. Water security in a changing world
Abstract ID:
177
Submit by:
Jan Machac
Author(s):
Jan Machac | Jiri Louda | Lenka Dubova |  
Country:
CZECH REPUBLIC
Keyword(s):
Green and blue infrastructure, urban adaptation, insufficient rain water absorption, cost-benefit analysis, ecosystems services, institutional analysis
Files: 

Abstract

In order to tackle the impacts of global climate change, the EU has published the EU Strategy on Adaptation to Climate Change. The existence of the Strategy has led to the establishment of national strategies at the member state level, which mostly recommend focusing on the self-government level and the private sector. However, strategies do not bring solutions by themselves. Adaptation has to be perceived as a process that involves identification of suitable measures and their location in an area, economic assessment, institutional analysis handling conflicts among actors, and setting of institutions for potential implementation of measures. These aspects then have to be included in urban strategies and, through them, in land use plans. It can be demonstrated on many practical examples that non-systemic and non-comprehensive approaches prevent effective adaptation of cities and, in some cases, they may even aggravate the situation.

A successful adaptation process can be demonstrated on the example of the city of Pilsen (Czech Republic), which has recently faced the problem of insufficient rain water absorption. This issue has been resolved both technically - designing adaptation measures, and at the institutional and economic level, with an assessment of costs and benefits of the implementation of numerous measures, such as semi-permeable parking spaces. These aspects are now being reflected in the strategy being developed and, alongside it, in land use plans. Institutional analysis according to the IAD Framework has been applied to examine the relationships among the actors and rules. In-depth interviews were applied to include attitudes and opinions of all the key actors with an influence on the city's adaptation. Among other things, the results have shown a significant incongruity between information and awareness of the necessity to deal with the existing situation between officials and non-profit sector representatives on the one hand and politicians capable of promoting change on the other hand. The knowledge of all the actors has been largely influenced by the recent experience of climate change manifestations, which were always considered the most important among the politicians. Thus, the politicians emphasised the large floods that affected the Czech Republic in, e.g., 2002 and 2013 rather than the flash floods caused by torrential rain and problems with rain water absorption.

Furthermore, we developed cards for selected measures at the general level that describe the costs and benefits of measures, and cost-benefit analysis was applied to specific measures. The CBA provided surprising results. In the case of a specific implementation of a parking lot with a permeable surface, the net annual social benefits are EUR 1,025 (an amount including only a part of the benefits that could be monetised). Even the sole private benefits to the parking lot owner exceed the costs of the measure. In this respect, the measure turned out to be extremely effective and was recommended for implementation. A similar situation occurred when assessing the green roofs. The results show that implementation of some adaptation measures is possible even without any subsidies from the national government and can be done by the private sector or even households themselves. However, investors in many cases lack information about the profitability of nature-friendly measures for making a decision. This results in unwittingly poor water management.

The results of the analyses and the urban adaptation process thus clearly show that an integral component should be improved information, not only for politicians who have the decision-making power, but also private entities who can contribute to adaptation with their behaviour but currently lack information, primarily about the economic profitability.

Theme:
4. Water policy and governance
Abstract ID:
176
Submit by:
Jan Machac
Author(s):
Jan Machac | Jan Brabec |  
Country:
CZECH REPUBLIC
Keyword(s):
Disproportionate cost, good status, new Leipzig approach, Stanovice reservoir, Czech official methodology
Files: 

Abstract

The EU Water Framework Directive has instituted a number of requirements, including achievement of a “good status” of all water bodies. The initial state of almost all the water bodies in 2000 was far from the “good status” required by the directive. Beside the pressure to improve the water quality rapidly, achieving of “good status” has had a major impact on water management and national economies. Achieving of “good status” is often impossible for many objective reasons. In justified cases, member states may request an extension of the deadline or less stringent objectives. Large investments can be one of the reasons.

The WFD does not provide a clear explanation of how the cost proportionality should be assessed. Within the EU, it is possible to come across a number of different approaches. Each country has developed its own methodology, mostly based on cost-benefit analysis (also the case of the Czech official methodology certified in 2015). One of the alternative approaches is the German “new Leipzig approach”. Both the approaches quantify costs associated with implementation of measures that are necessary to achieve “good status”. The Czech approach places a great emphasis on benefit monetisation. The result is then determined by comparing the costs and benefits in monetary values, while also taking into account non-monetised benefits.

The German approach also considers all costs since 2009 related to “good status”. The biggest difference between these two approaches is on the benefits side. The “new Leipzig approach” identifies several predetermined groups of benefits, which are evaluated on a scale from 0 to 3 based on their significance. Furthermore, it is necessary to assess the distance from good status. The average annual costs of water management prior to 2009 are the last input for the analysis of disproportionality. Using these values, maximum increase in yearly investment is determined. This number rises with higher past investment and longer distance from the target. The costs of measures are compared with the past costs (plus allowed increase) also considering the additional benefits and distance from the target. This approach leads to avoidance of benefit monetisation and thus the application is less time and cost demanding.

Both the approaches were applied in the Czech Republic in a case of the Stanovice reservoir – small sub-catchment of the Elbe, which faces eutrophication – with similar results. The application of the measures seems to be cost-proportionate, and thus the exemption should be refused. According to the cost effectiveness analysis, the total annual costs of implementing all the measures are EUR 44,231. Given the German approach, it is cost-proportionate to spend an additional EUR 1,114,639 on the application of measures until 2027. In the same time period, the total costs of such measures are EUR 509,580. Based on the Czech approach, the annual benefits are EUR 284,532.

Application of both the approaches is associated with many problems and challenges (e.g., data availability, criterion setting), which are further discussed in the paper. For practical use, it is necessary to use an approach that provides results quickly but of meaningful value.

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
151
Submit by:
Angélica Vieira
Author(s):
Rebecca Paixão | Isabela Reck | Marcelo Vieira | Rosângela Bergamasco | Angélica Vieira |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
nitrate, adsorption, green synthesized, copper nanoparticles.
Files: 

Abstract

Nitrate is the inorganic contaminant of concern in water that can cause serious human health problems such as cancer and methemoglobinemia due to its conversion to nitrite. Thus, suitable treatment methods are needed for its removal from contaminated water, such as electrodialysis, membrane filtration and biological treatment. However, adsorption is the most viable method for treatment of this pollutant. In this study, granular activated carbon (GAC) of babassu coconut was used as adsorbent and it was developed a green synthesized method for the impregnation of copper nanoparticles into its surface using Hibiscus Sabdariffa flower extract. The impregnated carbon was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Total Reflection X-ray fluorescence (TRXF). After the characterization, the prepared carbon was evaluated in water nitrate removal. For the batch adsorption studies, solutions containing 100 mg/L of nitrate were prepared and the study was conducted to investigate the influence of pH, mass of adsorbent and temperature parameters in nitrate percentage removal. The characterization confirmed the successful synthesis of copper nanoparticles since peaks related to the copper oxides were detected by XRD and copper quantity was determined by TRXF. Also, SEM confirmed the difference between the surface of both pure and impregnated GAC, suggesting the presence of some nanoparticles. For adsorption results, the influence of pH showed that at pH 2 the adsorption process is favorable, since at acidic pH the concentration of H3O+ increases and this ion will interact with nitrate ions. For the influence of mass of adsorbent, results showed that the percentage removal increases proportionally with the increase of the mass, which is attributed to major availability of active sites. Finally yet importantly, the increase of temperature from 15 to 45ºC results in the decrease of nitrate removal. This indicates that NO3- adsorption on impregnated GAC is exothermic process and favorable at lower temperature. The present work indicated that the impregnated GAC is a promising material for removal of nitrate, where the impregnation of copper oxide increased the efficiency of nitrate removal by more than 240%, compared with the pure GAC, at same experimental conditions.

Theme:
B. Building capacity
Abstract ID:
144
Submit by:
Alan Sañudo
Author(s):
Alan Sañudo | Dr. Rafael Carmona |  
Country:
MEXICO
Keyword(s):
Transient, pump, startup, shutoff, hydraulics, characteristics, trans, envelopes, modeling, waterhammer, cavitation, vessel, surge.
Files: 

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to analyze transients in a complex well pumping network, such as pump startup and shutoff. In order to obtain proper results, it is necessary to first model steady state conditions and then perfectly understand all of the parameters (roughness, flow, slope, critical velocity, pressure envelopes, cavitation pressure, pipe pressure rating, pump curves, pump inertia, pump specific velocity, bladder precharge and more) to model unsteady state conditions in the network. The model for the network was created with TRANS, a software developed by UNAM's (Mexico's National Autonomous University) Engineering Institute that has been updated along the past 10 years. This software is based upon the Method of Characteristics.

Now, we all know that within a transient anaylisis, there are several types of protection devices that we can find and help us mitigate maximum or minimum pressures that are present in a system or a network and must be controlled. When the model is calibrated and ready, it is analyzed without any protection to see the maximum and minimum pressure envelopes that can collapse the system. After a process of iterations and result analysis, bladder surge vessels were the best devices for a complete solution in this scenario, because they don't need as much maintenance as other devices do, and they work steady against cavitation pressures. Another important point, is that this devices must not affect the system startup after a shutoff. All of this is to demonstrate through several graphs and conclusions. It is important to mention that there are endless combinations of transient protection schemes, but there's always one that is the optimum.

In surge problems, we also have to take into consideration, not only hydraulic aspects, but also economic. With that said, sometimes there's poor maintenance programs culture, so it's necesary to look at this with another perspective and try to give the best solution to each system and its needs. 

Theme:
1. Water, sanitation and health
Abstract ID:
134
Submit by:
Luiz Carlos Pereira
Author(s):
Luiz Carlos Pereira
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
electronics disposal, contaminated water, risk population.
Files: 

Abstract

Water is a vital resource for humanity and for the manufacture of electronic equipment. Being a cross-sectional component of all social, economic and environmental activities, electronic equipment, is today an icon for the development of a whole society. Both are a necessary condition, a limiting factor or facilitator for any development. But, when the water and electronic waste are combined and become a threat to human environment, it becomes a base for a conflict. Due to numerous discrepancies in the results of experimental studies on the contamination of water with electronic waste in relation to its disposal in landfills, we set out to investigate the relation of water contamination in ground water from chemicals such as mercury, lead, chromium and cadmium, found in electronic equipment. From an international look and Brazil, in this study, we analyzed the presence of these substances in drinking water and its proximity where it was discarded. Remember that the raw material in the manufacture of electronic equipment such as computer and your video monitor, generate about 22 kg of chemicals. During the study, it was observed that in place of drinking water showed signs of contamination and that can associated with the proximity of such electronic equipment. It was also demonstrated the analysis of water contamination in its composition, checking the risk of the population in the surveyed areas of Brazil and its comparison to other international locations as available to the process of electronic equipment, checking it the use of contaminated water for the population adjacent to dispose of this equipment. However, it is necessary to continue the studies with new proportions for the content of elements to become an official document on public policies to combat e-waste in landfills.

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
127
Submit by:
MARIA LAURA MURUAGA
Author(s):
María Laura Muruaga | María Gabriela Muruaga | Cristian Andres Sleiman |  
Country:
ARGENTINA
Keyword(s):
vinasse, pollution, bioethanol, fermentation
Files: 

Abstract

The momentum of bioethanol in Argentina, from sugar cane was reflected legally with Law 26,093, "Regime Regulation and Promotion for Sustainable Production and Biofuels Uses", which came into force in 2010 and established that must supply with at least 5% ethanol to all gasoline, a percentage which was gradually increased to 12% in 2016. This meant an opportunity for the province of Tucuman in the north of Argentina to expand its industrial production counting with nearly 300,000 hectares planted with sugar cane, 15 mills and 11destilerías. The sugar and alcohol sector, produces ETHANOL, which is used for fuel, food, beverage, pharmaceutical and chemical industries; SUGAR, sold for food, BAGASSE, solid waste grinding to obtain paper and electricity and VINASSE, which is the main liquid waste generated during the production of ethyl alcohol.

Downloading this type of untreated effluents produced water eutrophication of rivers characterized by nutrient enrichment in an aquatic ecosystem. The explosion of algae that accompanies the first phase of eutrophication causes a clouding that prevents light penetrates to the bottom of the ecosystem. As a result at the bottom becomes impossible photosynthesis, and the environment becomes anoxic. Therefore this waste is highly polluting for water bodies, where it can cause the collapse of aquatic life due to the large amount of organic matter, so it is necessary to properly handle it. All approaches seek to eliminate or mitigate the effects of pollution on rivers, where traditionally these derivatives have been discharged without treatment or insufficient treatment. However, vinasses are a rich material with many potential uses.

The aim of this work is to address the problem of pollution of rivers of Tucuman proposing an alternative to decrease the amount of vinasse produced in the process and promote its many uses.

The advantages of the possibility of increasing the values of fermentative power of yeast for industrial use 10 to 12% ethanol in the wort, reduce the amounts of vinasse obtained. Traditionally yeasts are the main microorganisms used in the production of alcohol and finding strains hyper-producer yeast it is increasing the production capacity of bioethanol, with lower costs distillation and guarantee the supply of a renewable biofuel and reduce pollution of rivers.

From an environmental point of view the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain A2, isolated in this work, it would achieve 30% decrease in levels of vinasse generated from an average of 13 Lvinasse / Lalcohol to 9 Lvinasse / Lalcohol.

By producing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain A2 large-scale use in the mills will bring benefits for production, energy consumption and environmental benefits reducing pollution in rivers.

 

Theme:
5. Water ecosystems and physical regimes
Abstract ID:
122
Submit by:
Prem Rangsiwanichpong
Author(s):
Prem Rangsiwanichpong | So Kazama |  
Country:
JAPAN
Keyword(s):
Landslide, Sediment yield, Thailand
Files: 

Abstract

Landslides in mountainous areas are the major source of sediment delivered to downstream areas and dominates the mountain erosion rates. Although the natural landslide is caused by heavy rainfall, earthquakes, volcanic activities, and so on. Rainstorms are the most common triggers for landsliding in most tropical mountainous areas especially in the north and south regions of Thailand. This purpose of this research is to assess the relationship between the probability of landslide and sediment yield in several regions of Thailand. For this research, the relationship between sediment yield and probability of landslide was develop using sediment yield observations from 36 stations over all of Thailand. The probability of landslide depends on the effect of topography, geology and hydraulic gradient due to rainfall variation by digital elevation data with 1 km resolution. The result shows that landslide events have significantly the effect on sediment yield in Thailand. Furthermore, we analyze the relationship between sediment yield and probability of landslide in several areas of study area consisting of north, south, northeast and central areas in Thailand. We found that the most of sediment yield in Thailand occurs in the northern and southern regions (landslide area) because these regions are covered by the mountain and steep slope area due to heavy rainfall in monsoon season.

Theme:
6. Water and sustainable growth
Abstract ID:
120
Submit by:
Ranjan Sarukkalige
Author(s):
Ranjan Sarukkalige | Kyle Jones |  
Country:
AUSTRALIA
Keyword(s):
Climate Change, Evapotranspiration, Crop Water Requirements, Water Use Efficiency, Sustainable Management.
Files: 

Abstract

Irrigation occupies a small portion of land in Australia, but provides enormous quantities of food and fibre for the nation. However, with the immense benefits comes the vast use of national water supply, occupying 65% of water consumed in Australia. At a point in time where resources are limited, the previous approaches of expansion by building new dams and desalination infrastructure is no longer sustainable. Consequently, the only solution to this problem lies with maintaining the current infrastructure we have and analysing water usages to provide better practices and procedures for more efficient use of water. The key objective of this study is to develop guidelines for sustainable agricultural practice, in the northern and eastern farming regions of the Western Australia named, Gascoyne, Ord and Wheatbelt. CROPWAT was utilised in this study due to its extensive and global use of estimating irrigation requirements for sustainable water management. Results indicated that the practical applications of water in the irrigation industry are exceeding crop water requirements. As a result, water was being overexploited and therefore management techniques needed to be employed to lower the water footprint. The primary focus of this research was to examine the two sustainable techniques of crop scheduling and rainwater harvesting that in turn amplified Western Australia’s water use efficiency in the agricultural sector. Outcomes of this study demonstrate that crop scheduling led to a water saving of 8.5, 0.6, 9.7 and 1.9 ML/ha for Banana, Cotton, Sugarcane and Rice respectively. By scheduling irrigation to meet the crop’s water requirements, savings proved to be colossal. In this case, the Western Australian agricultural impact was reduced from number one to third, behind the Mining and Household sectors. On the other hand, onsite rainwater harvesting did not provide any advantages, as evaporation and seepage water losses greatly exceeded the rainfall received in all areas. This study provides analysis of crop water requirements to develop universal sowing guidelines that utilise the most water efficient growing periods in the northern and eastern regions of Western Australia. By communicating this information through set management processes and guidelines, efficiency can be met and sustainability in the industry enhanced.

Theme:
B. Building capacity
Abstract ID:
115
Submit by:
MARITZA LILIANA ARGANIS JUÁREZ
Author(s):
JACQUELINNE MARILES GUTIÉRREZ | FAUSTINO DE LUNA CRUZ | MARITZA LILIANA ARGANIS JUÁREZ | MARGARITA PRECIADO JIMÉNEZ | ELISEO CARRIZOSA ELIZONDO |  
Country:
MEXICO
Keyword(s):
Digital terrain model,mathematical models, plain surface,genetic programming, flood
Files: 

Abstract

To obtain digital terrain models approximated with mathematical models is an important engineering trouble, since the availability of a surface model allows to simulate processes and to experience in the modeled surface regardless of the model itself, obviating the risks and indefinitely repeating experimentation. Since late last century, the interest on the study of digital elevation models (DEM) has been increasing largely due to the ease represent working with the surface of study in laboratory, tests can report a similar behavior to the actual surface in case of extraordinary events, or search that can predict the behavior of the same events. However, the complexity of the topography makes the models obtained based on their mathematical representation no more than a symbolic meaning, so in practice the elevations of an area are given from subregions from equations applying only for that zone. As a result historical studies had focused on searching and finding the way these models represent better the study area, rather than get those models from a single mathematical function. In this paper the DEM equations for a portion of plain surface of Mexico, through which a river, was obtained by means of the evolutionary computation algorithm of genetic programming (GP), only arithmetic operators were considered  and  the results between measured and calculated contour levels were compared. Additionally an estimation of areas prone to flooding caused by extraordinary events was made. Genetic programming (GP) proved to be a useful tool to estimate  the topographic elevations of the analysed plain area; the representation of the actual terrain by means of several correspondence rules was the best solution obtained  with this evolutionary computation algorithm. These models can be a valuable tool in numerical simulatons of two-dimensional flow performed by the hydraulic engineer.

Theme:
B. Building capacity
Abstract ID:
114
Submit by:
DAVID ORTEGA-GAUCIN
Author(s):
DAVID ORTEGA-GAUCIN | ALEJANDRA PEÑA GARCÍA |  
Country:
MEXICO
Keyword(s):
Society, education, communication, public policy, water conservation.
Files: 

Abstract

In Mexico, during the last three decades, many advertising messages that are propagated by various media (radio, television, Internet, etc.) have been developed and disseminated in order to raise public awareness about the importance of protecting water and make a rational use of this natural resource. Thus, from an institutional approach, the Federal Government through the National Water Commission (CONAGUA), has made a series of communication campaigns that aim to foster the "water culture" among the population. However, after many years of spreading campaigns and programs in the mass media, few voluntary changes in consumer habits of the vital liquid, and even less, participation and involvement of society in the conservation of the hidric resource are observed. This leads to question the effectiveness of these programs and campaigns, so the questions arises: What results have they had? Have they been really effective? What should be done to improve their effectiveness? In this sense, this paper aims to provide elements to answer these questions through a critical analysis of communication campaigns to promote water culture in Mexico. To do this, from the theoretical basis of public communication and the methodological foundations of the content analysis, collection and analysis of content of messages transmitted in Mexico by CONAGUA through audio, radio spots and television, digital publications and graphics (posters) was held, covering the period 2006-2014.

Based on the results, some of the factors by which it is considered that such campaigns have very little positive effect in changing consumption habits of the vital liquid were identified: a) The campaigns do not take into account differences in the population, ie, the different meanings, dimensions and cultural values that a society gives to the water; b) The campaigns are incorrectly oriented, as they are more oriented to the advertising function of the institution itself than to being a real tool for organizational and cultural change; c) The campaigns promote a partial and short-term view of the problem, as they often focus exclusively on promoting water saving in the household, leaving aside the other uses; and d) There is no coordination between the various institutional campaigns and programs related to the topic. Therefore, it is concluded that the lack of effectiveness of campaigns for water care is multifactorial, and that public policies implemented by the Federal Government to promote water culture among the population have been insufficient, because they have overlooked, among other things, that the basic instruments for an informed and sensitized society are the formative and participatory, since one of the guiding principles is the proper action of people so that, after a process of active learning, they change their attitudes and behavior in relation to the environment. So, it is substantial to include formative processes and participatory learning as part of communication campaigns to make them more effective.

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
105
Submit by:
Samuel Dare Fagbayide
Author(s):
Samuel Dare Fagbayide | Francis Olawale Abulude |  
Country:
NIGERIA
Keyword(s):
Ala River, assess, water quality, human activities, impurities, health risk
Files: 

Abstract

The  purpose  of  the  study was  to  assess  the water  quality  parameters  of Ala River  found  in in Akure, Ondo State, Southwest, Nigeria.  The  river  is  considered  as  one  of  the most  important  irrigation and  drinking water  resources  in Akure, Nigeria. Three locations were chosen spatially along the water course to reflect a consideration of all possible human activities  that  are  capable of affecting  the quality  of  the river water. The water samples were collected monthly for three consecutive months (February to April, 2015) at the three sampling sites. The water samples collected were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters which include pH, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total hardness, phosphate,  temperature, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, nitrate, iron and zinc using standard methods and their environmental effects on the river were investigated. There were variations in the  quality of the sampled water when compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for domestic and commercial water for the selected parameters. The  traces  of  some  hazardous physical and chemical  impurities  in  the  river were  above  the  acceptable  limits;  and  thereby  pose  a  health  risk  to  several  rural communities who rely heavily on the river primarily as their source of domestic water. Therefore, study concluded that law should be enforced to discourage unnecessary waste dumping and discharging of other form of pollutants into surface water in Nigeria.

 

Theme:
6. Water and sustainable growth
Abstract ID:
100
Submit by:
walter pardave
Author(s):
walter pardave
Country:
COLOMBIA
Keyword(s):
water footprint, river tributaries, mineral beneficiation
Files: 

Abstract

The process of gold extraction and have a great impact on the environment by the use of chemicals (mainly mercury and cyanide) with a high degree of toxicity to both ecosystems and to the human species. Although estimates of consumption have mercury and cyanide in gold mining, it still lacks indicators to establish the environmental impact caused by these contaminants in the water resource.

Water Footprint is relatively new (Hoekstra and Hung 2002), and its main background three concepts: Ecological Footprint, Carbon Footprint and Virtual Water. All these indicators are aimed to quantify the impact either on the water, air or soil generated by the growth of the human population, but also are indicators to make decisions at all levels (public policies, business policies or just cultural changes in societies).

The following paper aims to estimate the environmental impact of a beneficiation plant auriferous minerals by the indicator water footprint, which allows not only analyze actual consumption of water in stages from extraction of minerals rocks to obtain a gravimetric gold concentrate but also to quantify the degree of pollution generated mainly by dumping Surata was a tributary of the river. In this first approach is taken into account Water Footprint Water Footprint Blue and Grey. The determination of the corresponding flows for each unit operation shows that the operation of the mill as an initial area consumes a sub blue water footprint equal to 1.15 m3 / day .The two Wilfley tables located in the gold processing plant recovery and employment show water for processing of 0.55 m3 / day and the final stages of sedimentation of queues and means ore, subsequent dumping of tailings process the tributary of Suratá river show a consumption equal to 5.16 m3 / day., indicating the final stage of the process in the plant, is the one that requires greater consumption of water treatment. The results become a tool for decision making in the municipality and also to the environmental authorities and water; because they allow direct the public and private actions towards activities that are most affecting the water resources of the area that generates drinking water for a population of about one million inhabitants. To complement the results and have a broader view of environmental sustainability processing of gold-bearing minerals, is necessary to evaluate aspects such as the water supply of the area, it identifies whether the sector is demanding more water than is available.

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
95
Submit by:
GEORGE ANDRADE
Author(s):
George Ricardo Santana Andrade | Cristiane Cunha Nascimento | Elias Cordeiro Silva Júnior | Douglas Thainan Silva Lima Mendes | Iara F. Gimenez |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
ZnO, plasmonic nanoparticles, hybrid nanostructures, photocatalysis, sonocatalysis
Files: 

Abstract

The search for innovative technologies to treat wastewater against the removal of heavy metals, microorganisms and pollutant organic compounds in aquatic environments arises as a dynamic branch of nanoscience. The use of hetero-nanocatalysts based on inorganic semiconductor crystals decorated with metal nanoparticles has attracted considerable interest for this application due to their synergistic interactions, which can improve the degradation process. In this work, we report a new and simple room-temperature method for preparing hetero-nanocatalysts based on a star-shaped zinc oxide (ZnO) crystals decorated with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) for enhanced degradation of an azo dye. The presence of thiourea during the precipitation of ZnO in alkaline conditions allowed the control of morphological features (e.g. average size and shape) and the surface functionalization with thiocyanate ions (SCN-). GNPs were deposited onto the ZnO surface by a photoreduction method and their average diameters (between 6-10 nm) could be easily controlled by changing the ZnO/HAuCl4 ratio. Also, when GNPs are prepared without removing the unadsorbed Au3+ ions before the photodeposition, GNPs grows with different sizes and shapes. The morphology and optical properties of the as-obtained pure and hybrid nanostructures were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, FTIR, UV-vis-NIR and PL. For the degradation studies, methylene blue (MB) was chosen as the model dye because of its wide range of utilization in industry (e.g. textile industry). Thus, the degradation of aqueous MB solutions was investigated by solar photocatalysis (samples were exposed to sunlight from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. during the autumn of 2016 (April-May) under an average radiant exposure of 2900 kJ m−2 at the time of experiments), UV-A photocatalysis (using a photochemical reaction apparatus equipped with two black light fluorescent lamps (25 W, λ range = 320-400 nm)) and sonocatalysis (performed in dark conditions using a ultrasonic bath operating with at a fixed frequency of 35 kHz and 100 W ultrasound power). The degradation efficiencies of bare ZnO and hybrid ZnO/Au were estimated by UV/visible measurement. In all the cases, hybrid ZnO/Au particles presented the higher degradation efficiencies due the plasmon improved generation of reactive oxygen species (ROSs). Also, among the 3 methods, the photocatalysis performed under sunlight irradiation presented the higher rates of the dye degradation, which is interesting as it uses a clean, cheap and renewable energy.

Theme:
4. Water policy and governance
Abstract ID:
83
Submit by:
Aldo Castañeda
Author(s):
Aldo Castañeda  | Hugo Flores | Rogelio Martinez |  
Country:
MEXICO
Keyword(s):
Governance, Water resources, Highlands of Jalisco, Tepatitlan México.
Files: 

Abstract

Local management of microwatersheds and especially water bodies, is an option for the management of natural resources as joint bio-physical and socio-cultural elements, as included in the river basin itself.

The purpose of this paper is the study of local customs and handling of sources of water supply, by users of the microwatershed of "Jihuite" to the dynamic pressure of Tepatitlán city, in order to identify both the problems in the short and medium term, as the processes of local governance of water, caused mainly by; changes in land use, population growth and agricultural and industrial development of the region in the last 25 years.

The purpose of this paper is to study the local management of the sources of water supply, by users of the microwatershed of "Jihuite" to the dynamic pressure of Tepatitlán city, in order to identify both the problem in the short and medium term, as the processes of local governance of water, caused mainly by; changes in land use, population growth and livestock and industrial development of the region in the last 25 years.

Starting from the basic elements that make up the microwatershed and socio-demographic characteristics of its population characteristics, current conditions of availability and quality of water for municipal public service, as well as the perceptions and needs of different stakeholders are identified, complementing the information quantitative with qualitative tools such as semi-structured interviews and surveys, to meet the needs and perceptions of the different actors involved, from the conceptual approach of cultural ecology and by the basic principles of the local water management by watersheds and the analytic framework of governance.

The results show: some strategic actors with resources and power enough to influence decision-making, few management areas where they overlap actors and commitments are made, the water rates are variable, standing out in the city of Tepatitlán have to 25% subsidy, social perceptions highlights the public concern for the quality and supply of drinking water, as well as the risks to human health by discharges of untreated wastewater, from wastewater houses, livestock farms and industries to sources of supply microwatershed.

Likewise, there are the normative basis for social participation, however locally this is very limited, on the other hand there are the technical and legal feasibility for the installation of devices and mechanisms for managing payment for environmental services; water recharge areas, environmental damage and environmental contingency caused by third parties, but these still we are properly implemented.

In the last 30 years water management in Mexico has submitted changes from centralist models, to political strategies based mainly on the possible participation of society, this model of water governance in Mexico, has been influenced by the pattern of international politics where it is intended that water management is a participatory approach, however in this municipalization transition without planning and support is observed, although it is noteworthy that in recent years the state water commissions have acted as a counterweight that could facilitate decentralization of decisions and resource management, while providing technical, economic and administrative support to municipalities.

Theme:
4. Water policy and governance
Abstract ID:
78
Submit by:
li yan
Author(s):
li Yan | men-wu wu | zhi-peng ma |  
Country:
CHINA
Keyword(s):
the Pearl River estuary; River and sea boundaries; Management; Law
Files: 

Abstract

The management of Pearl River estuary relates to water agency, ocean agency, land use agency, maritime agency and traffic agency. Due to the overlap in the management scope of the Pearl River estuary, the responsibility in estuary is unclear and the management is confusion over the years. How to define beaches, estuaries and seas scientifically is the key to administration according to law. The author verified a large number of the domestic and foreign legal definition and other relevant documentation to make a detailed discussion for the laws and regulations relating to the boundary between river and sea in estuary area.. It proposes some solutions accordingly, for the existing management problems.

Theme:
3. Water security in a changing world
Abstract ID:
77
Submit by:
Dillip Ghose
Author(s):
Dillip Ghose
Country:
INDIA
Keyword(s):
Water level, Water table depth, BPNN, RBFN.
Files: 

Abstract

Groundwater is a prominent source of drinking and domestic water in the world. In this context a reliable water supply policy, estimation of runoff during monsoon necessitates accurately predictions of water table depth fluctuations throughout the year.In the present study the input data used are precipitation, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, humidity and runoff during monsoon.  The monthly runoff data are calculated using emprical forulae  from the available field data of precipitation and temperature in Indian conditions. Owing to the difficulties of identifying complex non-linear model structure and estimating the associated parameters, Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) and Radial Basis function network (RBFN) models are taken into account for present study. Back propagation neural network model with delta algorithm is calibrated using historical groundwater level records and related hydro-meteorological data to simulate water table fluctuations in the study area. Similarly RBFN network has been used to analyze the water table depth prediction for four different stations. In the present investigation estimation of runoff is carried out for comparative assessment of water table depth for four different stations.  The sensitivity of above two different models has been computed. 

Theme:
2. Water quality, wastewater and reuse
Abstract ID:
72
Submit by:
Harshit Jain
Author(s):
Harshit Jain
Country:
INDIA
Keyword(s):
Arsenic, Modelling, Ganga-Mehgana-Brahmaputra Basin
Files: 

Abstract

Arsenic contamination is a world-wide problem. The mechanism of mobilisation of arsenic involves various complex processes of reduction and oxidation. The sedimentilogical and geomorphological characteristics cause the wide spatial distribution of arsenic. This paper presents the multiple regression models for predicting arsenic concentration for the entire area of Bengal-Bangladesh region. The models is used to predict the arsenic concentration for various places like Murcharpur, Daukaudi, Northern Haripuri, kumarchar area of Bengal-Bangladesh region.

Theme:
6. Water and sustainable growth
Abstract ID:
44
Submit by:
Bhishma Karki
Author(s):
Bhishma Karki
Country:
NEPAL
Keyword(s):
muluki Ain (laws of land), Bhupati (land lords)
Files: 

Abstract

By addressing water, one will also address human development. People’s lack of access to safe and secure water is not due to the quantity of water available on the earth but rather because the institutions set up to manage the issues are not up to the challenge. In Nepal Muluki Ain (Laws of Land) did not regulate water much in detail because water was not considered an important resource and a source of major revenue. Water rights are based on practices legitimized bylaw and they are related to political, economic and social relationship and to other rights such as land rights Muluki Ain (1854, 1952 and 1963),which regulates priority in acquiring water from water sources, and allocation of water. Acts promulgated between 1961 and 1992 reflect the growing importance of water resources in Nepalese political economy and not only empower the state to regulate water use, they also vested ownership of all water resources with the state. Although various Acts gave water rights to every citizen of Nepal, there are gender bias in executing power and rights to use water sources. Water scarcity problem can perhaps be due to geographical reality, climate change or to the excessive use of water resource in one sector and a resulting loss of raw water available for other uses. Issues such as good water governance, negotiation and collaboration for water sharing, awareness on values of water, management of water induced disasters etc needs specific attention.

 

Theme:
1. Water, sanitation and health
Abstract ID:
37
Submit by:
Tara Zolnikov
Author(s):
Tara Zolnikov
Country:
UNITED STATES
Keyword(s):
autoethnography, access to water, weight
Files: 

Abstract

Background: Approximately 780 million people do not have access to safe or affordable drinking water worldwide. Improved access to safe drinking water is defined as water located within 1 km from the household and must contain at least 20 liters daily for each member per household. Unfortunately, there are many populations worldwide that continue to have poor or limited access to water.

Objectives: To date, an autoethnographic viewpoint on poor access to water does not exist; therefore, I sought to experience what poor access to water means for millions of water gatherers worldwide.  This study took place in Narok, Kenya. 

Discussion: The demanding part of gathering water is the weight. The weight of the tribal beads strewn across my head and neck was close to 5 pounds, which was added to the weight of my 5-months-pregnant body.  Next, the weight of the water in a 10 liter jerrycan was added; the jug was supported by straps around my forehead and settled into the hollow of my lower back—another approximately 20 lbs. I glanced at the sun and felt the dry Africa heat penetrating my skin under the heavy native clothing.  My exposed skin had already accumulated small beads of sweat even before I began moving. And then, I walked.  Each step required concentration and effort to disregard the unfamiliar pain that reverberated throughout my body from the unaccustomed weight.

Conclusions: Water gathering transport times and the associated physical exertion need to be moved to the forefront of problems associated with poor access to quality water. Ultimately, because women are subjected to a vast array of problems during water gathering, it is essential to continue implementing water interventions to help relieve individuals from the associated consequences.