Chronis Ioannis, Vouvalidis Konstantinos, Albanakis Konstantinos
Laboratory of Physical Geography, School of Geology, Aristotle University of
The proposed methodology fills a gap on the outcome of river management plans in Greece according to European methodologies developed. It combines the result of pressure analysis with the hydromorphological assessment and it results comprehensive and cost-effective support for measures development in the frame of river basin management. Human activities along the river channel result changes on the fluvial hydromorphological processes. The hydromorphological quality corresponds to the dynamic equilibrium of the fluvial processes of the channel. The need for the establishment of a correlation methodology between the hydromorphological quality and the pressures is particularly noticeable today more than ever. The ecological and more specifically the hydromorphological characterization of the river status, has been implemented in a very simple and not clear way, as worded in the official European Commission reports for Greece and other European countries. For the achievement of management objectives, the assessment of the hydromorphological status of rivers is a prerequisite that reflects the conditions and the processes that exist in the river channel. These are formed as a consequence of natural processes and anthropogenic pressures. Aim of the study is to support river hierarchical management measures throughout a total approach of river morphology providing a methodology that identify the critical fluvial processes that are directly affected by the presence of point source pressures. At the same time, solutions are provided to avoid conflicts between different methodological approaches for the determination of water bodies according to Directive 2000/60/EG and the delineation of the reach which is used to describe the hydromorphological characteristics, status and assessment. The tools that are proposed in the guidance documents of the Water Frame Directive (WFD) are used, applied, evaluated and discussed for their effectiveness to the management goals. The assessment of hydromorphological quality of rivers is held with the methodology of Morphological Quality Index (MQI), which includes analysis of the hydromorphological and geomorphological processes of river systems. The implementation of the methodology covers a different range of water bodies, into which occur multiple hydromorphological and point pressures. This methodology is applied in river segments where point hydromorphological pressures appear, also with morphological changes due to surrounding anthropogenic interventions, and at every point where actions of removing structures from the watercourse of the river occur. These segments belong to water bodies that are included in the national monitoring network. In these segments, appear hydromorphological pressures that are analyzed and hydromorphological assessment approach shows which of the hydromorphological elements are affected. For example, sand abstraction is a major hydromorphological pressure. In hydromorphological assessment within the reach where the pressure appears, sediment discharge is characterized and classified, also channel morphology and substrate are classified. Measures that can be proposed for the reach are ranked high because of the hydromorphological classification and the significance of the morphological elements is presented. The proposed planning of measures delivers directly applicable, cost-effective and targeted actions in a specific context of implementation measures at a river basin scale as the legislation requires.
Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) is based on the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers and it is a multicomponent regional development project aiming to enhance irrigation and energy potential of Turkey. These two rivers carries 28% of Turkey’s water and also the project is laid out on 20% of irrigable lands in Turkey. It consists of 22 dams, 19 hydropower plants and irrigation of 1.8 million ha land and as we come today the project is realized 74% in terms of energy and 26.4% in terms of irrigation. GAP has started as a regional development project in 70s and it just adopted sustainable development perception when it gets attention worldwide in 80s. This integrated sustainable development project influences multiple sectors such as agriculture, industry, transportation, urban/rural infrastructure, environmental protection, health, education and tourism. The main objective of the project was to strengthen social, economic, institutional and technical aspects of human development in an economically disadvantaged region by significantly increasing the living standards of the region. This study has an objective to clearly identify the goals of the project and analyze the main impacts of the GAP not only in terms of energy generation and irrigation but as a part of an overall strategy which aims to achieve energy security for the country.
An urban river on a gasping state: Dilemma on priority of science, conscience and policy
Former Associate Professor
Department of Geography
Women’s Christian College
6, Greek Church Row
Kolkata - 700026
In the present years ‘Adi Ganga’ may be designated as an urban river as almost for the full length of its flow it is passing across one of the world’s most congested and densely populated area i.e. Kolkata (erstwhile Calcutta) – a leading metropolis in India, the capital of West Bengal. It is the only river within the city. But presently it is serving the urban people not as a river but as a sewer carrying the filth and dirt of the people around, particularly the illegal occupiers dwelling on its banks.
Once the river had a glorious past and even today it is termed as a heritage river since it fulfills a long cultural and economic heritage of the region. Mention of this river can be traced back in many old literatures, epics and maps. Kalighat temple (Goddess Kali) located on its bank is itself a century old heritage site and is a holy Hindu pilgrimage. This once juvenile stream was a favourite trade route of the local and foreign traders. Large water vessels used to flow by carrying commodities. Its importance was even felt by Major William Tolly, who excavated it in the British period to rejuvenate the trade of lower deltaic Bengal. The river is also called ‘Tolly’s Nullah’. Historical remains spread over a checkered cultural landscape almost everywhere along its banks co-existing with today’s commercial hubs and flourishing residential high-rises.
There was life in its flowing water till a few decades back. But unfortunately its death was triggered by the detrimental human activities and short-sighted decisions of the administration. The waste matters are dropping out to the river from the lined up toilets of the shanties that belong to the migrated people from Bangladesh. Now it is suffocating and perhaps awaiting its last breath. In the name of easy transport system Metro Railway pillars were constructed right onto its bed when a river is considered as the most pollution free and cheapest mode of transport system. But the undesirable decisions from policy makers had obliterated the science of nature, ecological balance, sustainable economic viability and other natural processes.
The example of this river raises some pertinent questions on prioritization of the issues – whether at all there will be a point of priority on the issues based on natural resources where natural components are attached with the demands of people. Or the point on whether a man’s perspective (from the viewpoint of individual or mass) and the decision of the representatives and implementers should work hand in hand to create a balanced relationship between man and nature or between ‘water’ and ‘policy’.
With this objective the study has been focused on all the points mentioned here – water, people’s perspective and policy matter and its implementation.
Key words: urban river water, urban transport, squatter population, environmental degradation, policy matters.
The Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB), a region with 43% of the national population & nearly 42% of China’s GDP, is of strategic importance to the country. However, fast economic growth and rapid urbanization have put much pressure on the water resources and ecosystems along the Yangtze River. The YREB’s water use has been rising at a rate faster than the average rate allowed by the total water use cap for the region by 2020 and 2030.
The paper, based on the policy brief “WATER-NOMICS OF THE YANGTZE RIVER ECONOMIC BELT: Strategies & recommendations for green development along the river” jointly published by China Water Risk (CWR) and the Foreign Economic Cooperation Office of the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China (MEP FECO), explores the linkages between water use and allocation, as well as pollution control and economic development in the YREB.
Significant economic, water use & pollution disparities exist among the three YREB regions – the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), the Middle Reaches and the Upper Reaches. For instance, the YRD’s per capita GDP is almost 2x that of the other two regions; while, the Middle Reaches and Upper Reaches grew faster than the YRD during the 12FYP. As a result, wastewater discharge from the Upper Reaches has been rising faster, and risks for pollution from mountaintop to the sea are high as treatment capacity in the Upper Reaches still lags behind the YRD. Can pollution be managed holistically along the entire river? How can the poorer and less developed Upper Reaches develop without causing more pollution downstream?
YREB’s dominance in China’s economy, means it must lead by example in finding innovative and clean solutions for water, food & energy security. Indeed, various policies on the development of the YREB released since 2014, have signalled a shift in policy towards ecological protection and green development along the river. To manage YREB’s water risks and achieve harmonious development on the Yangtze River, better understanding of trade-offs in ‘water-nomics’ at the YREB is necessary as they will have implications for China’s national water, food, energy and economic security. Policy making should focus on managing trade-offs in balancing water allocation and pollution with economic mix. The paper also proposes an “Upgrade, Protect & Advance” approach along the YREB.