The project generates a training program of good environmental practices for adults on its work area, with participation of the Environmental Educators Network (REA by its Spanish acronym) and DCH-AGUAKAN as pilot company.
Developed based on a Participatory Action Research approach including:
The Environmental Education (EA, by its Spanish acronym) should be focused not only on the educational processes of children, but also include adults, who make the economic, political, cultural and educational decisions, creating the need to contribute to the environment, by building a society viable for future generations.
The DHC-AGUAKAN environmental training program for collaborators is intended to generate information through the environmental knowledge of collaborators themselves and the Environmental Educators Network, by developing new life experiences projecting individual, family, business and social changes.
A constructivist methodology and qualitative approach will be used for the work, which is based on an interpretive perspective, since the designing of a multi-participatory strategy of EA for conservation of local natural resources for DHC-AGUAKAN is very specific.
With the above, the initial training proposal of EA for adults was developed, to be implemented in several companies.
Participation of the company to be trained is required in order to conduct the project.
Keep the trainers (REA) trained, in a state of observation and disposition.
The National Water Law contemplates a chapter on water culture and mandates to promote it according to the reality of the country and its hydrology.
The National Development Plan, in its Axis 4 "Environmental Sustainability", proposes the strategy of encouraging a water culture that favors water saving and rational use.
For the above, the National Water Program establishes the Objective 5 "To consolidate the participation of users and organized society in the management of water by promoting its good use".
DHC-AGUAKAN considers the above by translating its educational-environmental management into a set of activities, means and techniques including training and financial human resources in the application of new technologies, to conserve ecosystems, and ecological relationships between them, according to the same service nature and its relation to the resource with which it is worked, including adults in the environmental knowledge of the various environmental subjects.
As a standard for government decisionmaking, the obligation to act in the public interest is pervasive. To take just one well-known American example, the Federal Communications Act of 1934 requires the Federal Communications Commission to find that that “the public interest, convenience, and necessity would be served” before it can issue or renew a broadcast license. Not surprisingly, protecting the public interest is also a common requirement for allocating and managing water resources. The American Society of Engineers Model Water Code, for example, requires that private water use applications be approved only if “reasonable” – defined as, among other things, consistent with the public interest.
Despite its ubiquity as a public law standard, what it means to manage a resource in the public interest is far from clear. And the problem is arguably of particular importance for a common pool resource like water.
This paper explores the role of the public interest in managing water. It begins by considering three possible theoretical approaches for analyzing the public interest. The first employs an economic or utilitarian lens that views the public interest as a tool for promoting decisions that either maximize wealth or perhaps, afford “the greatest good to the greatest number in the long run.” The second approach looks at pluralism, which seeks to aggregate the individual preferences of interested parties and filter those views through a political or democratic process. This category majoritarian views as determined either by popular vote or the vote of elected representatives. A third approach and the one advocated in this paper views the public interest as solely reflective of shared communal and societal values. The key to this approach is recognizing that public interests are distinct from private interests. It describes the communal aspect of the public interest in normative terms.
The paper draws on the work of Hannah Arendt, Richard Flathman and others to support a view of the public interest that focuses on communal values. In the context of water, a communal view of the public interest might establish protected baselines for such values as minimum stream flows, water quality standards, and ecological health standards. Private rights and uses would be allowed under this system but only after the primary public interests are protected. While the public interest is inherently dynamic and must be sufficiently flexible to change as values change and as new information becomes available, its unwavering focus must remain on protecting core communal values.
After establishing a communal values framework for the public interest, the paper turns to an appropriate process for defining the term. Here the paper relies on the work of John Rawls, Cass Sunstein, and others to advocate a civic republican approach, asking that interested parties set aside their personal preferences and work toward a definition that reflects communal values.
The paper concludes with observations as to how different jurisdictions employ the public interest framework in managing water resources and how well it conforms to the proposed model. Reforms that aim to bring state policies more in line with the model outline here are also considered.
THE IMPERATIVENESS OF CITIZEN PARTICIPATION IN WATER GOVERNANCE.
Christian Chibuzo Maduka* Communications and Social marketing Expert, 3rd Urban Water Sector Reform and Port Harcourt Water Supply and Sanitation Project, Port Harcourt Water Corporation, 6 Water Works Road, Rumuola, Port Harcourt, Rivers State Nigeria.
Telephone: +234 803 313 5820
Achieveing long-term solutions to issues and gaining support and acceptance of the public through efficient inclusive participation and outreach is vital for the World water congress as to make a remarkable and sustainable impact. Therefore, complementing the operating improvements with comprehensive stakeholder outreach program to re-build relations between the stakeholders and service bearers is the solutio to furthering the sustainability of the safe and clean water initiative.
Until now, consultation of stakeholders by the water operators has been weak or nonexistent. Therefore there is great need to engage the citizens to develop and then implement a stakeholder feed-back system. This program will provide all levels of stakeholders with training and capacity building to enable them to implement the Citizen’s Participation System in water governance.
For very effective and active participation of the public in water governance, a strategic communication approach to citizen’s participation through extensive dialogue is imperative. Such initiative must recognize the priceless impute of citizens, civil society organizations, media, professionals and government officials in water service delivery.
There must be very bold attempt to take water policies and actions to the public space thereby making the service bearer at every level and all allied institutions accountable to the citizens. Adequate citizen participation in water governance will bring facts to the fore in the most simplest and intelligent form to elicit participation of all stakeholders.
The objectives of the citizen participation in water governance include:
· establishing collaboration between all stakeholders in water services sector, institutions, development partners and the civil society in water service delivery;
· inclusion and defense of vulnerable and special needs groups through community management systems
· promoting citizens´ participation in water project in particular and defending the interests of individuals and communities in the water utilities through continuous citizen’s participation on service, performance, and future improvements
· strengthening service-oriented relations between the users, the service bearers and the water accessories manufacturers and
· building knowledge and capacity of service users and customers representatives in key water and sanitation provision issues.
In this paper, we shall examine the problems of non-participation of citizens in the conceptions, designs and implementations of policies of water and sanitation issues especially in developing nations like Nigeria and attempt at proffering solutions to them.
The paper will examine in details the following issues: citizen participation in water governance, and outline strategies and solutions to the problems of non-participation of citizens in water services by detailing the following issues:
- What is Citizen Participation System:
- Objectives of Citizen Participation
- Framework for Citizen Participation
- Roles of citizens and media in water governance
- Methodology for Citizen Participation
Keywords: Citizen Participation, Water, Governance, Stakeholders
This study was conducted in March 2016 at local community of Lahore Pakistan named “Badar Colony” where people were facing worst drinking water, sanitation and poor hygiene conditions & environmental hazardous. Study was carried out with prime objective of
Aziz Bhatti town selected as universe & badar colony as population while three sub-towns selected as a target population. Well structured household interview schedule, focus group discussion (FGSs) and personal observation techniques used for primary data collection while secondary data was collected from official published reports. Total 450 households selected as a representative sample size & interviewed using probability random sampling technique While 120 Focus group discussion (FGD) sessions carried with equal gender & geographical representation. Personal observation carried out throughout the field visits. Data was analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) and resulted presented on the bases of presentage & frequency distribution.
Results & Discussion
Results indicated that people of local community associated with very low socioeconomic, political and educational status. People were depending of ground water which was severally contaminated due to drop & store sanitation and open draining system which created huge environmental degradation, high level of water associated diseases and economic deprivation. Government of Punjab took initiative to provide Safe WASH services to poor marginalized community of Badar Colony on public private partnership (PPP) doctrine using Bottom-Up approach and Component Sharing Model (CSM) philosophy. Project divided into two component in which external component financed by Government while internal component developed by Local community on self-help bases. Women & local youth were also engaged for the better monitoring of development phase. Safe underground Water supply & sanitation piping network installed and drinking water supplied through gravity flow while sewerage water accumulated to a disposal station for pretreatment. A local Water and Sanitation Community Committee (WASCO) was formulated while after the developing all the WASH Infrastructure, it handed over to WASCO which was running this project successfully in a sustainable way with 100% recovery of WASH monthly bills.
Data showed that 87% population strongly satisfied with provided WASH Services, 91% expressed economic growth, 84% environmental sustainability, 90% declined diseased rates & improved health status, 96% social integration & 79% strongly agreed with worth of involvement of Women & youth in WASH development sector. It was observed that involving multiple stakeholders in Water related projects reduce the work burden and increase the community ownership & project sustainability.
Conclusion & Recommendation
This study concluded that bottom up approach with actively involvement of different sector stakeholders have very influential role to ensure equal & adequate access of safe WASH services and its sustainability. Local community , its culture and available resources also have vital business for transparency , social integrity and poverty reduction through utilization in WASH Development .This study suggested that multiple stakeholders’ approaches with public private partnership (PPP) philosophy should be taken into practice to provide efficient sustainable WASH services in pro-poor communities of South Asian Communities.