RS-37 Water Sanitation and Health

Topic: 1. Water, sanitation and health
Date: 2017-05-30
Time from: 15:30:00
Time to: 17:00:00
Room: Cozumel 1
Chairman: Lilian DEL CASTILLO-LABORDE (delcastillo.laborde@gmail.com)

Abstracts

Theme:
1. Water, sanitation and health
Abstract ID:
513
Submit by:
Márcia Araújo van der Boor
Author(s):
Márcia Araújo van der Boor | Raimundo Rodrigues dos Santos Filho | Júlio César Reis da Silva | Jaiza Lima Leite Lira |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
water, quality, treatment, distribution, policy, administration
Files: 

Abstract

The objective of this study was to diagnose the public distribution system of water and the quality of the drinking water in the so called ‘Quilombola Communities’ (descendants of African slaves who originally fled from their oppressors to the interior and today still live in isolated communities, officially recognized as such), in the municipality of São Luís Gonzaga, Maranhão, Brazil. Access to drinking water is a universal human right recognized by the General Assembly of the UN in 2010, according to which all people have the right to have physical and economical access to safe drinking water in adequate quantity and quality to supply for all basic human needs. In large parts of Brazil public access to drinking water is unequally distributed, especially in the Northern and Northeastern regions which suffer the most of insufficient drinking water supplies. Although in Brazil as a whole 82,5% of the population has access to water that has received some sort of treatment, only 53,8% of the northeastern state of Maranhão has access to such, mainly limiting this treatment to the large cities, meaning that the rural Quilombola communities receive little or no treatment of their water supplies. The method used for the categorization of the water distribution system, was the filling out of a standard form after a visual inspection, and for the analysis of the drinking water, the collection of samples from the wells used by the general population, subsequently microbiologically analyzed in a specialized laboratory, using the technique of chromogenic substrate; all performed by qualified government employees. The result showed that all 12 analyzed distribution systems consisted of subterranean water sources without any treatment of the distributed water, without preventative or corrective maintenance, and providing only intermittent supplies. As for the microbiological quality of the water; of the 35 analyzed samples 100% were positive for the presence of Total Coliforms and 40% were positive for the bacteria indicative of fecal contamination Escherichia coli. It was therefore concluded that the water supplied to this population does not conform to the minimal standard for water used for human consumption as established by Ordinance 2914/2011 of the Ministry of Health, putting the population at risk of acquiring water-born and -related diseases. This present study clearly reveals, that the mere presence of a public water distribution system is no guarantee at all that the actual need of the population to have access to good quality drinking water in adequate quantity is met; be it because of a lack of system maintenance or the total absence of treatment of the distributed water. This confirms the need for an urgent new public policy on a national level that establishes: 1) a viable development of complete and adequate sustainable distribution systems of water properly treated for human consumption in rural areas and 2) the obligation of the local government to establish municipal sanitation and water-distribution policies that guarantee the proper public administration of these systems in cooperation with the local community.

Theme:
1. Water, sanitation and health
Abstract ID:
502
Submit by:
Rafaella Oliveira Baracho
Author(s):
Rafaella Oliveira Baracho | Rita Claire Klees |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
sanitation policy, municipal sanitation plans, sanitation, Brazil
Files: 

Abstract

The main goal of this study is improve Municipal Sanitation Plans (MSP) in Brazil. In order to achieve this goal, plans will be analyzed in order to identify best practices and do recommendations about how to prepare sanitation plans in a manner that supports successful implementation. The Sanitation Act establishes the national guidelines for sanitation in Brazil it was enacted to modernize sanitation regulation, giving support and new institutional features to cities, counties and States, aiming to improve the sanitation services in Brazil. The MSP can be a way to improve the urban development since MSP is an important instrument of planning. On the one hand MSP is an important tool for urban development in Brazil, however in writing and implementing the plans is a challenge for a number of reasons. One reason most Brazilian cities are inexperienced in planning sanitation, and the cities have had problems in writing plans.  Another reason is that, usually, the City Administration does not have enough human resources to work on the sanitation daily and routine sanitation activities. Thus, the cities tend to hire a consulting company or a service provider to write the MSP, which can be expensive and sometimes the City Administration remains indifferent to, or has little access to, the plan during the process of writing. As consequence of the aforementioned problems, weak plans have been written and implemented. Even though some problems have been identified in the analysis of plans, important gaps still remain in the identification of the problems specifically in the MSP from Paraná State. 
The research tool adopted as methodology tool was a check list.  The check list covers all aspects of Municipal Plan, and follows recommendations founded about Plans in literature about Plans. The categories analyzed are: Universal Access (UA), Equity, Policy/Sectorial, Document “Municipal Policy of Sanitation”, Management Capacity, Drinking Water (DW), Sewage, Urban Drainage, and Urban Waste Management.
The conclusion is the MSPs vary in quality and comprehensiveness. While each MSP has positive features, none completely meet the legal requirements. All categories had problems and recommendations for your improvement. Of particular concern basic categories are not completely covered including i.e. UA, Equity, and DW. For Equity, the main problem is the concept does not appear in any part of the MSP. A recommendation to solve it is to present social characteristics of the population without access to services to priory investments, as a way to know and priories equity programs and projects. At UA, the concept just stated as purpose, but no incorporated throughout the plan. Provide detailed information to identify who still does not have access to the services and how to achieve universal access is a recommendation. At Drinking Water no data about possible causes of disability, so it is necessary investigate these problems and make available on MSP. On Policy/Sectorial category, it is recommended consider gender, race, and poverty on MSP. Also, always link and includes watershed plans and Democratic Participation tools in sanitation planning process. 
 
Theme:
1. Water, sanitation and health
Abstract ID:
428
Submit by:
Ross Tierney
Author(s):
ross tierney | Leon Williams | Alison Parker | Sean Tyrell | Ewan McAdam | Athanasios Kolios |  
Country:
UNITED KINGDOM
Keyword(s):
Sanitation, Product development, Water conservation, Urbanisation, bottom of the pyramid
Files: 

Abstract

 
This paper systematically reviews current low-water toilet technologies and discusses the associated problems encountered by the users. In urban slums of developing countries, pit latrines shared by multiple families are the most common sanitation option and one that accelerates the spread of disease through the community. Meanwhile in developed countries, the desirable 'flush and forget' mentality is enabled by a system that uses around nine litres of clean water per visit, having a significant impact on the environment. As more people around the world move out of poverty, the toilet that people will aspire to own is the impractical luxury that is the flushing toilet. This will lead to increased demand on the already strained water sources. To make low water toilets as pleasant and simple to use as the flushing variety, new technology is needed to address a range of problems. There is potential that improvements to toilets for developing countries can also be effective at reducing water usage of toilets in developed countries. The major user-frustrations of toilets in the literature are identified highlight the overlap between the top and the bottom of the pyramid. These are discussed against existing and promising new technologies that could potentially address these problems. Areas for further research are presented to stimulate innovation with a focus on transferable features to improve the toilet interface, regardless of the economic position of the user.
This paper contributes to the wider knowledge of sustainable sanitation by discussing 12 potential design features to address the frustrations of the users. This has implications for product designers, WASH NGOs and commercial toilet manufacturers aiming to develop desirable low-water toilet solutions in both developing and developed markets.
 
Theme:
1. Water, sanitation and health
Abstract ID:
343
Submit by:
Vanessa Cruvinel
Author(s):
Vanessa Cruvinel | Lucijane Monteiro | elaine Nolasco | Izabel Zaneti | Aldira Domiguez |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
waterborne diseases, water intake, water intoxication, social determinants, sanitation
Files: 

Abstract

Being that it is an essential condition for life, water in inadequate conditions could be a social determinant which can, in turn cause specific illnesses, either by direct or indirect contact, with the ingestion of non-potable water, deriving from inadequate reservoirs for human consumption; contact with contaminated water and exposure to vectors related to the water. In vulnerable areas, the source of fresh water utilized by human beings suffer a continuous and increasing degradation process due to the disposal of sewage in natura or infected with animal feces and waste disposal in open air contaminating the water table; in addition, serving as breeding spots for mosquitoes in their immature stages, transmitters of human disease agents. Such a fact is the result of disorganized population growth and the lack of covering sewage disposal and adequate treatment of waste in the most vulnerable areas. The open dump located in Brasilia, has been used as an area for the indiscriminate disposal of waste in the soil since the sixties. It is Latin America’s biggest open dump and receives 9,000 tonnes of waste per day. Currently there are, working there and living nearby, almost 2.000 waste pickers of recyclable materials and their families who are in a situation of extreme social vulnerability and health. Based on data provided by Regulating Agency for Water, Energy, and Basic Sanitation of the Federal District – (ADASA) resulting from monitoring of groundwater campaigns in the landfill area, this study identifies and evaluates the importance of the actors involved in the surveillance, monitoring and preservation of water quality, discusses the contamination degree of groundwater, and analyzes the risk of vulnerability of the population directly affected. After monitoring the porous and fractured domain wells over three years, it can be concluded that there are evidences for groundwater contamination in the vicinity of Structural's controlled landfill. The fact is rather worrying, because the region where the landfill is located is a watershed, where people who use water from wells for drinking water live, a fact that can lead to several health problems. This statement is corroborated by the results obtained from data analysis, which indicated parameters such as electrical conductivity, chlorides, alkalinity, iron and lead in high values and some of them at odds with the Brazilian legislation for drinking water and groundwater quality for human consumption. These study's results are expected to highlight the importance of water quality used for consumption by waste pickers who work at the landfill and surrounding areas pointing out to knowledge of the risks on the current sanitation, health, and environmental problems in this site. In addition, it is intended to propose integrated and intersectoral actions for improving health of waste pickers and the public health as well as preserving and protecting the environment.

Theme:
1. Water, sanitation and health
Abstract ID:
38
Submit by:
Tara Zolnikov
Author(s):
Tara Zolnikov
Country:
UNITED STATES
Keyword(s):
Water, HIV/AIDS, family
Files: 

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and poor access to water are two primary global health issues. Poor access to water may significantly affect families infected with HIV and result in adverse social and health consequences. A qualitative study used semi-structured interviews to understand health and social outcomes of families after the implementation of water interventions in rural Kenya. One major sub-theme emerged during this research, which included the effects of water on an HIV-affected family. Prior to the water interventions, common adverse health effects from lack of nutrition, water, and poor hygiene were experienced. After receiving access to water, nutrition and hygiene were improved and additional time was gained and used to reinforce relationships and spread awareness about HIV/AIDS. This study provides need-based evidence for access to safe drinking water in order to decrease adverse health outcomes and improve the quality of life for HIV-affected individuals.