Water Quality Index of Lake Chapala in Mexico and its potential risk to public health
R. Vallejo-Rodríguez, E. León-Becerril, J.J. Díaz-Torres, L. Hernández-Mena, J. Del Real-Olvera, V. Flores-Payán, L.J. Martínez-Mendoza, A. López-López*
Corresponding author: email@example.com
Lake Chapala is located in Jalisco, Mexico, and is an important resource for drinking water for the Metropolitan Zone of Guadalajara (MZG), the third economic city in Mexico. Thus, the aim of this work is to evaluate the Water Quality Index (WQI) of Lake Chapala in accordance with the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) and the Mexican guideline NOM-127-SSA1-1994, and the possible impacts and implications in public health for the use and consumption of water.
(b) Summary of the problem
Lake Chapala receives the discharge from Lerma river that collects the domestic and industrial wastewaters along its route of 708 km from Toluca Valley in the southwest of Mexico City; wastewater without treatment from the villages settled around Lake Chapala; runoff water from agricultural field and discharges from wastewater treatment plants. Lake Chapala provides 62% of water to be treated in the drinking water treatment plants and is distributed to the MZG.
(c) Methodology used
Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), a water-sampling plan of Lake Chapala with 17 sample sites, including the discharge of Lerma river, a point where Santiago River arises from Lake Chapala, and two effluents from drinking water treatment plants, was implemented. The water-sampling plan was performed in dry and rainy seasons to collect water for physicochemical and biologic analysis. WQI is one of the most effective index to communicate water quality, it includes parameters such as pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, fecal coliforms, temperature, total phosphate, nitrate, turbidity, and total solids; also, the presence of metals included in the NOM-127-SSA1-1994 was determined.
In Lake Chapala, average WQI was 55 points, which indicates a water of medium quality; therefore, the direct use of water for drinking purpose is not recommended; also heavy metals were found, however they are under the limit established by the NOM-127-SSA1-1994. Lerma River is one of the principal sources of pollution to Lake Chapala whose WQI is 45 in the site of sampling water, indicating a poor quality. In the site sampling for Santiago river, (downstream, 1.5 km from Lake Chapala), WQI was 41, also indicating poor quality due to the discharges from municipal wastewater without treatment. For the water sample from the drinking water treatment plants, WQI were above 80 points indicating a good water quality.
(e) Implications of the study or its results
WQI lets to define the use and the final disposal of water and gives a research perspective about endocrine disrupting compounds and their possible estrogenicity in the second part of this research.
(f) Science-policy dimension
This study contributes with a preventive plan to reduce the potential risk to public health, that should include a more strict regulation of municipal and industrial wastewaters, and an adequate drinking water treatment to assure the water quality supplied to the population.
MICROBIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF GANGA RIVER, INDIA
Department of Environmental Microbiology
Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar (A central) University, Lucknow- 226025. INDIA
Ganga river is regarded as National river of India. The Gangaes is a trans-boundary river of India and Bangladesh. The 2,525 km river rises in the Western Himalayas in the Indian state of Uttarakhand and flows south and east through the Gangetic Plain of North India into Bangladesh, where it empties into the Bay of Bengal. By discharge it ranks among the world's top 20 rivers. The Ganges basin is the most heavily populated river basin in the world, with over 400 million people and a population density of about 1,000 inhabitants per square mile. A possible risk of infection is directly proportional to demonstrable faecal contamination. Total coliform are widely used indicators of microbiological contamination of water. Microbiological contamination originating from human or animal intestinal tracts is one of the most serious health hazards associated with water. In the present paper microbiological assessment of Ganga water was done at Kanpur, Varanasi and Allahabad and discussed briefly with special reference to human health. All assessment has been done according to standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, APHA, 2002. The coliform count of all sampling sites in Kanpur varies from 110 org/100ml to 910 org/100ml. From the result it is clearly evident that all the sites at Kanpur are having high count of total coliform. Among all sites the coliform count was highest at Parmath ghat and lowest at Ganga barrage. The coliform count of all sampling sites of Allahabad varies from 110 org/100ml to 1600 org/100ml. From the result it is clearly evident that all sites at Allahabad are having high count of total coliform. Among all sites the coliform count was highest at Sangam ghat and lowest at Mankameshwar ghat. The coliform count of all sampling sites of Varanasi varies from 110 org/100ml to 1600 org/100ml. From the result it is clearly evident that all sites at Varanasi are having high count of total coliform. Among all sites the coliform count was highest at Tulsi ghat and Varuna ghat. The study clearly shows high presence of total coliform at nearly all study sites. Highest count of total coliform can be views in two ways first it presence and secondly the microorganisms and disease associated with its presence. In the study there is a clear picture of resistance pattern among representative isolates taken from every sample. Correlation between presence of total coliform and their resistance profile with special reference to population safety, river management and human health will be discussed.
This paper aims to make comparative analysis between the environmental aspects of degradation found in the Rio das Bombas river in the city of João Pessoa / PB with the situation in other urban rivers throughout Brazil. The purpose is to show that Brazilian urban rivers are infected usually by the same pollutants that are residues proceeding from a defective system of basic sanitation, moreover, in some regions this system are inexistent, are residues proceeding from residences, industries, not only effluent, but in some solid material cases as sofas, refrigerators, among others, besides the waste that could be recycled, for example, bottle pet. This urban river pollution problems brings public health and environment consequences and in an overview a reduction of water availability in the regions. Methodology: Visits were made in loco in Rio das Bombas river, where the following aspects were perceived; water quality from the ones that were collect and microbiological analysis (total and thermo tolerant coliforms) in seven points by multiple tube methodology as Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and wastewater - 22th edition, where pollution of the river was found also were verified the motives why the area is degraded, It was noted the dump of sewage, construction waste, and household waste that were disposed in the surrounding river area, as well as animal husbandry around the riverside, the main points that influence to the pollution of that hydrous body. From these results, comparative studies were made in other rivers in Brazil to state that in general the pollutants found in urban rivers in the city of João Pessoa are the same found in other cities like Sao Paulo that are separated by more than 2500 km from each other. Results: The results of water quality found that the Rio das Bombas river has its source started in a water discharge of the rainwater drainage system, which has already found a pollution level permitted by Brazilian law for both potable and for bathing, and even solid waste such as plastics, tires, and others were found. As it is in an area of a park, the river begins to try for natural process, its own cleaning, where the central part of the pollution level drops a bit, but after receiving an effluent polluted and follows like this for all the analysed stretch. In the seven points collected sample was found the presence of the water quality indicator Coliform. Conclusion: The Rio das Bombas river is in an advanced stage of pollution as well as other Brazilian urban rivers. To recover it a joint action of public power in the revitalization issues will be necessary, control of wastewater and rainfall network, along with the population living in the region so that they don’t pollute the region again.
Cranfield University has developed a low-cost hydration indicator for use in urinals in order to motivate individuals to drink more water. Previous literature alongside an ethnographic inquiry of low-income individuals in Kumasi, Ghana, has shown that people in working conditions in low-income countries will avoid drinking water to limit the need to visit the toilet because of the poor state of the toilets. Not only does this prove problematic for the maintenance of sanitation, but also the general health of the people. Dehydration is a key indicator of diarrhoea where rehydration therapy is essential. Dehydration of course causes headaches and loss in concentration, but in the most severe cases, particularly children, the loss of body fluid and salts can lead to death.
In order to combat dehydration and bring new value to visiting the toilet, an electronic unit that infers the specific gravity of urine, and thus levels of hydration, from the urine’s colour. The technology has been developed using readily available, low-cost components for the purpose of reaching the bottom of the pyramid market. The results show that the devise accurately and repeatedly measures the specific gravity of urine and therefore indicates the level of hydration. The device is now being tested on users to assess whether their rates of water consumption changes.
The implications of such a low cost device may change the way people in low-income contexts perceive toilets and the need for hydration. In the continuing development of this technology, other health indicators from urine are being examined to keep users of this technology informed of their general wellbeing.