It is axiomatic that when water is sufficient to meet needs there is little conflict over allocation and use practices. Conversely, conflicts arise when water is scarce and stakeholders diverge over strategies and practices to meet water needs. Traditional approaches to water management, while still entrenched in supply development are now incorporating demand management strategies targeting increasing water use efficiency through conservation, pricing, reclaiming wastewater, crop selection and irrigation technology. This paper explores the dimensions of choice theory as applied by stakeholders in the selection of water management strategies.
This paper discusses the use of a two-dimensional preference-feasibility system to determine choices between water management strategies. It is a variance of an Importance-Performance model used in marketing and program assessment. As applied to water management strategy selection it is a function of two components: stakeholder preference for a particular water strategy and the stakeholders assessment of the feasibility/performance of that strategy in meeting a water need. This method is universally easy to administer and interpret resulting in extensive use among researchers, managers and planners in water strategy selection. Preference/Feasibility consists of a coordinate axis matrix where the preference (y-axis) and the feasibility/performance (x-axis) of different strategies are compared. Each of the four quadrants combines preference and performance assigned by stakeholders to a given water strategy. For example, it allows comparison of stakeholder rankings for aquifer storage and recovery compared to reservoir development.
Two Texas stakeholder studies are used to illustrate the applicability of this approach. Stakeholder questionnaires were used to elicit responses ranking strategies on a Likert scale. The first study examined strategies for maintaining environmental stream flows in water deficient and surplus rivers. Analysis of decision matrices suggests that stakeholders have high preferences for protecting environmental flows and they diverge on flow feasibility strategies. Strategies vary significantly based on surplus and deficit rivers. Flow quantification feasibilities varied based on equity allocations.
The second study examines stakeholder choices between 20 different water management strategies as part of a revised Texas water planning process. Study data was obtained from local Texas water planning officials (N=315, R=66 percent). Study responses indicated widespread variability among Texas regions regarding the selection of water management strategies. One strategy favored by all regions was the reuse of treated effluent as a source of water. However, water wealthy regions generally favored supply development options, whereas water poor regions favored demand management strategies. Water importation was rated as a viable option for water poor areas and it was generally held in disfavor in water wealthy regions.
Water availability is now a major concern both globally as other special scales of analysis, so that it is positioned as a priority security issue and as a key issue to ensure the quality of life of the human population, maintenance biodiversity and productivity of economic activities. It is based on the assumption that governments at different levels, have found it difficult to establish public policies that hone to social demands, which is also true with respect to the need for management and conservation of water resources. So the purpose of this article is to analyze the importance of the link between levels of government as regards the use and management of water resources in the municipalities that make up the Otomi-Tepehua (Hidalgo, Mexico) region.
It arises about the intrinsic importance of water for life and human society where Otomi-Tepehua region stands as a priority area for conservation for its richness in terms of water and biotic resources, so it highlights the need for adequate regional governance to the different social demands, which does not exclude the issue of water use and management. The issue of the use and management of water resources must be addressed from an analysis of the link between different levels of government, necessarily touching on topics such as intergovernmental relations, subsidiary and participation, thus evaluating the relationship 'bottom up' and 'top-down', analyzing promptly regard to public policies regarding the use and management of water resources in the region under study.
The methodology is to evaluate the National Development Plan (NDP), the State Development Plan (PED), Municipal Development Plans (MDP) of the municipalities that make up the region studied and Development Programmed for the Region Otomí- Tepehua, obtaining references about the linkages between different levels of government focusing on the issue of the use and management of regional water resources. So the possibility of linking political science and public administration stands. As results are expected to recognize the strengths and weaknesses of these linkages in order to propose actions and improvements that enable better dialogue between the different levels of government and society in relation to this specific issue.
This presentation addresses water governance from the perspective of sustaining local livelihoods such as agriculture, fishing and aquaculture. It argues that international, regional, and national water law and policy should emphasise resilience of social, economic, and ecological systems locally to effectively curb global mass migration.
Arguably we are entering an era of mass migration on account of climate change, and local economic and social circumstances. Reactive responses to increase the effectiveness of asylum seekers’ protection is a central question, but it is of paramount importance to understand the manifold drivers of the mass migration crisis and the governance mechanisms that can be deployed in tackling the problem proactively. On of the drivers is water, which underlines a broad range of social and economic problems: for instance, an article by the Smithsonian Institute draws attention to the linkages between the Syrian conflict and water governance. The article acknowledges that poor water management alongside the changing natural rain patterns was one of the central drivers that led to social unrest, civil war, and mass migration of refugees to Europe.
Therefore, it can be stated that water is a broader security issue than has been commonly understood. International, regional, and national water governance has a paramount impact for the water security of the individuals, which in turn affects greatly national security and its international implications. Consequently, a need for illuminating water security and related governance instruments in a broader security setting exists. However, it is crucial to understand that water governance is not for the states but for the people. Hence, the preservation and sustainable use of the local environments and livelihoods needs to be acknowledged.
In order to reap the benefits of sustainable water management, the governance of water resources should be clearly based on principles of international water conventions. The importance of sustaining local livelihoods in the international setting is embodied in the principle of equitable and reasonable utilisation, which includes social and economic needs of watercourse states and the populations dependent on the watercourse as primary factors.
The research is based on a doctrinal study of law and the methods of governance and policy research.
It is argued that the small scale social and economic needs of populations and local livelihoods dependent on watercourses have not been given enough weight in water governance considering the current migration crisis and its connections to water management. They should enjoy priority over other water uses on the basis of water law and human rights law.
e) Implications and science-policy dimensions
Proactive control of the mass migration requires that the local livelihoods dependent on watercourses are preserved. This should be the first priority of water policy at international, national and local level, and should function as a legal principle for allocating priority among water uses.
This project addresses a key shortcoming in our understanding of international hydropolitics. Namely the role of sub-national hydropolitics in shaping a state’s fresh water postures, interests, and behaviours on an international level. Resultantly, this project will serve as a compliment to more state-centric approaches too international hydropolitics. This project directly analyses Pakistan’s behaviours and postures over fresh water on an international scale through the lens of its sub-national provincial scale hydropolitics. The project has a number of aims and objectives within two main phases of analysis. The first phase focuses on the sub-national (provincial) scale and within this the project will seek to develop a thorough and robust exploration regarding the current state of provincial level hydropolitics in Pakistan. Taking into account a number of key factors including the use of data and science, political and institutional factors, ethnic and provincial nationalism, and formal and informal methods of communication in the development of interprovincial hydropolitics and hydro-policies. Research in support of this project will involve key informant interviews with a range of experts including water managers, policy makers, and commenters during a series of extended trips to Pakistan in 2016-17. This first phase will then allow the project to move onto the second phase which will be directly comparing and contrasting the case of provincial behaviour on a sub-national scale to that of Pakistani behaviour on an international scale while also exploring the ways in which these sub-national hydropolitics might influence Pakistan’s hydropolitical behaviours on an international scale. In doing so, this project will make a number of contributions in a range of fields including hydropolitics, political theory and federalism, and IR theory, as well as to the case itself. As the project is still ongoing there are not yet any conclusive results or findings. However, there are a number of suggested provisional findings. The first is that provincial level hydropolitics does indeed play a significant role in helping to shape Pakistan’s international fresh water needs, behaviours, and interests. This occurs primarily through the presence and influence of provincial actors and individual decision makers in Pakistan’s negotiation and policy making teams in Islamabad. The second finding is that the cases of provincial and international level hydropolitics in Pakistan and South Asia have a number of interesting similarities which warrant further exploration in the context of other cases and regions. Finally, this project also suggests that one of the most significant hurdles in provincial level hydro-policy development is the lack of available scientific data. A significant contributing factor to this issue is the warehousing of data by certain domestic organisation with limited dissemination. It is suggested that the opening up of these data sources and the general streamlining and standardisation of scientific measurement by all relevant actors across Pakistan will help greatly in promoting effective provincial hydropolitics and fresh water management. Such a step will help in allowing for a more unified understanding of needs and interests across the country and suggestions for how best to achieve this are also given.
As populations continue to soar, major cities face great challenges in sustaining its water supplies with stressed water resources. in this paper, authors compared water planning processes for two cities: Houston, Texas, United States and Shanghai, Chin. Water plans were developed based on projection of water demands, asesessment of water resources availability/supplies capacity, strategies in meeting future water demands. Houston water plan is part of the regional water drought contigency plan (Region H) in Texas State. It used a bottom-up approach. The population projection was made by the State, while water demands and water supplies as well as management strategies for addressing watter shortage for droughts were made by consensus of local stakeholders through a regional planning group and approved by the State as part of the State Water Plan. In opposite Shanghai used a top-down approach. The municipal government projected populaiton growth, estimated future water demands and assessed water availability, recommend strategies to address water shortage. The plan was further evaluated by experts from Chinese Academcies of Sciences and Engineering, national administrations for urban development, land and water resources management. One fo the common strategies shared by both cities is water conservation, which reducces water demands. Due to limited availability of groundwater for municipal water supplies as result of land subsidence, both citie sare targeting surface water for its future supplies. However surface water shared for future supplies were secured in different ways. Shanghai is expected to increase surface wateer share by using more bypassing river water (Taihu Lake and the Yangtze River) to solve water shortage due to poor water quality, while Houston are (Region H) is expecitng to expand surface water supplies through inter-basin transfer from the Trinity River and Lake Livingston to Lake Houston to convey surface water to solve water shortage due to limited water availabitliy locally. Moreover financial approaches for implementing strategies (infrastructure improvement and construction) were also different. Through comparative studies, the authors anticipated to share lessons learned fthrough planning processes and experiences gained in addressing different types of water shortages as well as institutional and policy constraints.