RS-17 Water Policy and Governance

Topic: 4. Water policy and governance
Date: 2017-05-30
Time from: 17:20:00
Time to: 18:50:00
Room: Salon Xcaret
Chairman: Tom SOO (t.soo@worldwatercouncil.org)

Abstracts

Theme:
4. Water policy and governance
Abstract ID:
551
Submit by:
VIVIANA VARGAS FRANCO
Author(s):
VIVIANA VARGAS-FRANCO | INES RESTREPO-TARQUINO |  
Country:
COLOMBIA
Keyword(s):
water governance, index, pressure-state-response model, fuzzy logic, microwatershed Andean
Files: 

Abstract

Environmental indicators and indexes are essential tools for tracking environmental progress, supporting policy evaluation and informing the stakeholders. Decision makers need the appropriate indicators and indices to assess, track, and equitably weigh integrated human health, socio-economic, environmental, and ecological factors to foster sustainability in watershed and micro- watershed. The Andean region holds 9.5% of the world’s fresh water reserves and plays the pivotal role of providing water for the majority of South American watersheds. However, unsustainable practices such as overgrazing in the water recharging zones, deforestation, mining, deficiencies in practices agriculture, changes on the use land and climate changes, directly impact their surrounding environment and water resource. The purpose of this paper is presented a water governance index (WGI) for Andean micro-watershed with application in a micro- watershed in Colombia. 
The methodology used for build index, was a combination of pressure-state-response (PSR) indicators, logic fuzzy and management knowledge. The PSR model is based on the concept of causality: human activities exert pressures on the environment (pressure) and change its quality and quantity of natural resources (state). Society responds to these changes through environmental, general politics, economics and sectorial responses (response). Fuzzy logic is an artificial intelligence (AI) technique that tries to emulate human decision processes. Fuzzy sets can have a variety of shapes. However, for simplicity in the computation process and adequate representation of the expert knowledge, trapezoidal and triangular functions were defined in this study. Knowledge management describes the strategies and processes of acquiring, converting, applying, protecting and transferring knowledge to improve decisions. The index WGI was applied at the El Chocho micro-watershed in Colombia. This microcachment has suffered a huge environmental damage, as a consequence of the change in the use of the land, the increase of the population, the discharge of untreated domestic wastewater, the poor management of the solid wastes, and the discharge of the acid coal water. These circumstances generate different kind of conflicts, especially the access to the water, degrading uses of water and activities which affects the quantity and quality of water. Institutions which work in this area sometimes contribute with solutions, but sometimes make worse these problems.
As results of this research project were obtained the follows indicators. Three indicators of pressure were defined: water use conflicts, land use conflicts and population growth. Two indicators of state were defined: community participation and institutional coordination. Two indicators of response were defined: communication strategies and social participation, and council watershed with its own administrative system. To each indicator was defined a function of fuzzy logic. Through the combination of these indicators was defined the water governance index (WGI). ). To operate index were defined 207 decision rules. The index value was high in each zone: low, medium and high. These results indicate low level in water governance in this micro-watershed. This study indicates the possibility of building and applying an index of water governance to support management decision process in Andean watersheds. More applications are necessary to evaluate this index.
 
Theme:
6. Water and sustainable growth
Abstract ID:
487
Submit by:
Barbara Moreto Fim
Author(s):
Barbara Moreto Fim | Edmilson Costa Teixeira |  
Country:
BRAZIL
Keyword(s):
environmental indicators, sustainable intensification, water management, catchment, family farming
Files: 

Abstract

The importance of family-based agriculture to economic development, poverty reduction, inequalities minimization and food security promotion is acknowledged worldwide. In the last decades many world organizations have researched a way to provide steady agricultural production in agreement with environmental preservation. Directed to this goal, Sustainable Intensification proposes the use of new technology and adaptation of existing practices, with specific application to each case. In this sense, there was an increase in attempts to develop and identify indicators suitable to the diversity of agroenvironmental systems. The Brazilian Water Resources Policy exhorts that it is fundamental to recognize the public domain of water, its multiple uses and management at river basin scale. However, each sector prioritize its own interests, the standard government management is done at municipalities scale, and the Family-based Agriculture Policy is managed at property scale. Since those policies are not discussed together at a regular basis, water resources allocation to agricultural production has somewhat become a problem.

Therefore, the project aims to identify, analyse and select environmental indicators to assist Sustainable Intensification practices in Espírito Santo, Brazil, focusing on family farming, with potential to be measured and assessed at catchment scale, contributing to the conceptual model envisioned on the project "Participative governance and collaborative integrated management at catchment scale for sustainable intensification of smallholder family farming", in partnership with government secretaries, policy execution agencies and research institutions. Thus, the methodology used included scientific literature review, stakeholders interviews and workshops to promote the discussion of family farming sustainability assessment and catchment's aspects evaluation.

There were indicators proposed with potential application at short term, such as Soil agricultural aptitude, Natural soil's vulnerability to erosion, Susceptibility to extreme events, Forest cover, Recovery of riparian areas and Rain distribution; and at medium term, such as Water quality, Superficial water availability, Area in degradation stage, Conservation of internal and external roads, Adoption of soil conservation practices, Integrated crop livestock forest areas, Fertilizers usage, Agrochemicals (pesticides) usage and Water usage.

Ultimately, it can be highlighted that the process of elaborating and proposing indicators os not only a technical issued, it is also a political process, in which the conflicting priorities of embracing every opinion to achieve sustainable development must be weighted, assessed and discussed. Though this project achieved an important step in this direction, being able to bring stakeholders together and adress the issue, to fully solve the problem there are still a long road ahead of research and political efforts.

Theme:
6. Water and sustainable growth
Abstract ID:
205
Submit by:
Daniel Gilmour
Author(s):
Daniel Gimour | David Blackwood | Ruth Falconer | Juliette Okeeffe |  
Country:
UNITED KINGDOM
Keyword(s):
Decision Support, water supply, infrastructure, sustainable communties
Files: 

Abstract

This paper presents research funded by the Scottish Government to enable an evaluation of the suitability of drinking water treatment technologies at small to medium scales to facilitate the application of the Scottish Government’s Sustainable Rural Communities concept. This research addressed the need to optimise the overall sustainability of small to medium sized water treatment processes for Rural Communities.  This required consideration of a range of economic, environmental and social aspects of available innovative and emerging technologies across the lifecycle of their construction, installation, operation and decommissioning. This was achieved using a multi-criteria decision analysis approach, undertaken in multi-stakeholder environment that included whole life consideration of the costs and benefits of the technologies through their inclusion in the criteria. The main finding of the project is a generic 4 stage decision support process for the selection of appropriate drinking water treatment for sustainable rural communities.  This is based on, and comprises of, the 3 key deliverables from the project.  Firstly an inventory of technologies from which to choose candidate technologies for further evaluation,  secondly a set of SRC drinking water technology selection criteria to be applied to each decision making process, thirdly a recommended MCDA tool to be populated for future decision making.   The research included a technology scan to, identifying relevant drinking water treatment technologies suitable for small and medium sized rural communities in Scotland and an expert stakeholder workshop to verify and refine the technology inventory. The stakeholder workshop was also used to identify suitable selection criteria for Sustainable Rural Community Drinking water projects.  The criteria that can be used in subsequent multi-stakeholder decision making on for the most sustainable treatment options for specific communities.  An explanation is provided on the methodology and the types of information that were collected and the outcomes of the research.  

Theme:
4. Water policy and governance
Abstract ID:
140
Submit by:
stijn speelman
Author(s):
stijn speelman
Country:
BELGIUM
Keyword(s):
agriculture; Bolivia; India; institutional arrangements, Israel; South Africa; wastewater reuse
Files: 

Abstract

Water scarcity and water pollution pose a critical challenge in many countries around the world. In the light of this, there is an urgent need to improve the efficiency of water consumption, and to supplement the existing sources of water with sustainable alternatives. One of such alternatives, wastewater reuse, has become increasingly important in water resource management for both environmental and economic reasons. In developing countries, however, wastewater reuse generally occurs within the informal arena, which means that untreated wastewater (or diluted wastewater) is used for irrigation. Such use represents risks for the health of the people (farmers and consumers) and the environment. In contrast, in developed countries these risks have been recognized and formal institutional arrangements have been established for wastewater reuse in agriculture. Such formalization implies planned and controlled use of treated wastewater. In this way risks are reduced, while still benefiting from an additional water source. This paper discusses the institutional settings for wastewater reuse in agriculture in four different countries: Israel, South Africa, India and Bolivia. Each of these countries represents a step along a trajectory of formalization of wastewater reuse, i.e. from informal towards formal use of wastewater. The purpose of this comparative analysis is to gain insight in the process of formalization of wastewater reuse by identifying key drivers, constraints and institutional arrangements influencing this process. The analysis of the institutional settings is framed within the Institutional Decomposition Analysis (IDA) framework proposed by Saleth (2004), and looks at three components of water institutions, namely, water law, water policy and water administration/organization. The information for this paper was collected through a literature review that includes peer-reviewed articles, official reports, official websites, books and grey literature. For Bolivia, India and South Africa, this information was furthermore complemented with semi-structured interviews with local stakeholders, conducted in different periods in the years 2013 and 2014. The study shows that key factors determining formalization of wastewater reuse include: water scarcity, public pollution prevention awareness, an effective policy and regulatory framework, and a capital-intensive water use linked to profitable markets. Wastewater offers a window of opportunities for water resources management, particularly for the agricultural sector. Countries can benefit enormously from this, but formalization of water reuse is required because it will guarantee that people enjoy the benefits while they are protected from the risks of wastewater reuse.